Thursday, November 30, 2006

Genesis 14:23

Genesis 14:23

That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet, and that I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich:

a. NLT: that I will not take so much as a single thread or sandal thong from what belongs to you. Otherwise you might say, ‘I am the one who made Abram rich.’

b. NIV: that I will accept nothing belonging to you, not even a thread or the strap of a sandal, so that you will never be able to say, ‘I made Abram rich.’

c. Young’s Literal Translation: from a thread even unto a shoe-latchet I take not of anything which thou hast, that thou say not, I -- I have made Abram rich;

d. Amplified Bible: That I would not take a thread or a shoelace or anything that is yours, lest you should say, I have made Abram rich.

e. Septuagint: [that] I will not take from all thy goods from a string to a shoe-latchet, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich.

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings/Prophets: if so much as a thread to a shoestrap; or if I shall take anything of yours! So you shall not say, ‘It is I who made Abram rich.’

1. “That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet, and I will not take any thing that is thine,…”

a. that I will not [518 * ‘im] [Strong: a primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrog., whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence, as a negative, not:--(and, can-, doubtless, if, that) (not), + but, either, + except, + more(-over if, than), neither, nevertheless, nor, oh that, or, + save (only, -ing), seeing, since, sith, + surely (no more, none, not), though, + of a truth, + unless, + verily, when, whereas, whether, while, + yet.]

This is the content of the vow Abram made to the Lord. We can safely say it was probably made during the decision to go rescue Lot and his family. It probably included giving of the tithe as well as the refusal of taking any of the goods to himself. All on the basis of the Most High God giving Abram victory over his enemies. There may have been a formal covenant made, but if not it at least consisted of this binding vow. 

b. take from a thread [2339 * chuwt] [Strong: from an unused root probably meaning to sew; a string; by implication, a measuring tape:--cord, fillet, line, thread.]

c. a shoelatchet [5275 * na’al] [Strong: from 5274; properly, a sandal tongue; by extens. a sandal or slipper (sometimes as a symbol of occupancy, a refusal to marry, or of something valueless):--dryshod, (pair of) shoe((-latchet), -s).]

1). Latchet [8288 * srowk] [Strong: from 8308; a thong (as laced or tied):--((shoe-)) latchet.]

d. I will not [518 * ‘im] [Strong: a primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrog., whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence, as a negative, not:--(and, can-, doubtless, if, that) (not), + but, either, + except, + more(-over if, than), neither, nevertheless, nor, oh that, or, + save (only, -ing), seeing, since, sith, + surely (no more, none, not), though, + of a truth, + unless, + verily, when, whereas, whether, while, + yet.]

e. take any thing that is thine [3947 * laqach ] [Strong: a primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications):--accept, bring, buy, carry away, drawn, fetch, get, infold, X many, mingle, place, receive(-ing), reserve, seize, send for, take (away, -ing, up), use, win.]

3. “…lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich:”

a. lest thou should say [559 * ‘amar] [Strong: a primitive root; to say (used with great latitude):--answer, appoint, avouch, bid, boast self, call, certify, challenge, charge, + (at the, give) command(-ment), commune, consider, declare, demand, X desire, determine, X expressly, X indeed, X intend, name, X plainly, promise, publish, report, require, say, speak (against, of), X still, X suppose, talk, tell, term, X that is, X think, use (speech), utter, X verily, X yet.]

b. I…made…rich [6238 * ‘ashar] [Strong: a primitive root; properly, to accumulate; chiefly (specifically) to grow (causatively, make) rich:--be(-come, en-, make, make self, wax) rich, make (1Kings 22:48 marg).]

c. Abram [87 * ‘Abram] [Strong: contracted from 48; high father; Abram, the original name of Abraham:--Abram.]

1). It seems apparent that the goods that Abram brought back would significantly increase his worth, and by all rights Abram was entitled to it because of his victory. His attempt to bargain with Abram I believe came from an ungodly boldness. I can’t help but see a contempt that Abram has for this king. It has already been reported in Genesis 13:13 that “…the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the LORD exceedingly.” It was this I believe fueled Abram’s contempt. Basically Abram said that he in no way would give opportunity for this person to say I helped Abram get his wealth.

Genesis 14:22

Genesis 14:22

And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth,

a. NLT: Abram replied to the king of Sodom, “I solemnly swear to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth,

b. NIV: But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “With raised hand I have sworn an oath to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth,

c. Young’s Literal Translation: and Abram saith unto the king of Sodom, 'I have lifted up my hand unto Jehovah, God Most High, possessing heaven and earth

d. Amplified Bible: But Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand and sworn to the Lord, God Most High, the Possessor and Maker of heaven and earth,

e. Septuagint: And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I will stretch out my hand to the Lord the most high God, who made the heaven and the earth,

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings?Prophets: Abram said to the king of Sodom: “I lift up my hand to HASHEM, God, the Most High, Maker of heaven and earth,

1. “And Abram said to the king of Sodom I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD…”

a. Abram [87 * ‘Abram] [Strong: contracted from 48; high father; Abram, the original name of Abraham:--Abram.]

b. said [559 * ‘amar] [Strong: a primitive root; to say (used with great latitude):--answer, appoint, avouch, bid, boast self, call, certify, challenge, charge, + (at the, give) command(-ment), commune, consider, declare, demand, X desire, determine, X expressly, X indeed, X intend, name, X plainly, promise, publish, report, require, say, speak (against, of), X still, X suppose, talk, tell, term, X that is, X think, use (speech), utter, X verily, X yet.]

c. king [4428 * melek] [Strong: from 4427; a king:--king, royal.]

d. Sodom [5467 * Cdom] [Strong: from an unused root meaning to scorch; burnt (i.e. volcanic or bituminous) district; Sedom, a place near the Dead Sea:-- Sodom.]

e. I have lift up [7311 * ruwm] [Strong: a primitive root; to be high actively, to rise or raise (in various applications, literally or figuratively):--bring up, exalt (self), extol, give, go up, haughty, heave (up), (be, lift up on, make on, set up on, too) high(-er, one), hold up, levy, lift(-er) up, (be) lofty, (X a-)loud, mount up, offer (up), + presumptuously, (be) promote(-ion), proud, set up, tall(-er), take (away, off, up), breed worms.] [Dake: A mode of appealing to God, and calling Him to witness any transaction.] [Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown Commentary: But with honest pride, and a generosity unknown in that part of the world, he replied with strong phraseology common to the East, "I have lifted up mine hand" [that is, I have sworn] unto the Lord that I will not take from a thread even to a sandal-thong, and that that I will not take any thing that [is] thine, lest thou shouldst say, I have made Abram rich"]

 1). This is clearly an action of covenant making. Other examples in Scripture where the hand was raised in oath.

a). Isaiah 62:8 The LORD hath sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of his strength, Surely I will no more give thy corn to be meat for thine enemies; and the sons of the stranger shall not drink thy wine, for the which thou hast laboured:

b). Ezekiel 47:14 And ye shall inherit it, one as well as another: concerning the which I lifted up mine hand to give it unto your fathers: and this land shall fall unto you for inheritance.

c). Deuteronomy 32:39-41 See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.
32:40 For I lift up my hand to heaven, and say, I live for ever.
32:41 If I whet my glittering sword, and mine hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to mine enemies, and will reward them that hate me.

d). Revelation 10:5, 6 And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven,
10:6 And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer:

2). In response to the king of Sodom’s offer of Abram keeping the goods but not the people, Abram told the king very bluntly of a vow he had made to God concerning the matter.

2. “…the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth,”

a. the most high [5945 * elyown] [Strong: an elevation, i.e. (adj.) lofty (compar.); as title, the Supreme:--(Most, on) high(-er, -est), upper(-most).]

b. God [410 * el] [ Strong: strength; as adjective, mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity):--God (god), X goodly, X great, idol, might(-y one), power, strong.]

c. possessor [7069 * qanah] [Strong: a primitive root; to erect, i.e. create; by extension, to procure, especially by purchase (causatively, sell); by implication to own:--attain, buy(-er), teach to keep cattle, get, provoke to jealousy, possess(-or), purchase, recover, redeem, X surely, X verily.]

d. heaven [8064 * shamayim] [Strong: dual of an unused singular shameh {shaw-meh'}; from an unused root meaning to be lofty; the sky (as aloft; the dual perhaps alluding to the visible arch in which the clouds move, as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve):--air, X astrologer, heaven(-s).]

e. and earth [776 * erets] [Strong:  from an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land):--X common, country, earth, field, ground, land, X natins, way, + wilderness, world.]

1). This the same exact wording that Melchizedek used when describing God to Abram at the culmination of the Covenant.

Genesis 14:21

Genesis 14:21

And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself.

a. NLT: The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give back my people who were captured. But you may keep for yourself all the goods you have recovered.”

b. NIV: The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people and keep the goods for yourself.”

c. Young’s Literal Translation: And the king of Sodom saith unto Abram, 'Give to me the persons, and the substance take to thyself,'

d. Amplified Bible: And the king of Sodom said to Abram, Give me the persons and keep the goods for yourself.

e. Septuagint: And the king of Sodom said to Abram, Give me the men, and take the horses to thyself.

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings/Prophets: The king of Sodom said to Abram: “Give me the people and take the possessions for yourself.”

1. “And the king of Sodom said unto Abram,…”

a. king [4428 * melek] [Strong: from 4427; a king:--king, royal.]

b. Sodom [5467 * Cdom] [Strong: from an unused root meaning to scorch; burnt (i.e. volcanic or bituminous) district; Sedom, a place near the Dead Sea:-- Sodom.]

1). If the king survived the battle This king’s name was Bera, Genesis 14:2. He is mentioned first in the list of the kings of the cities of the plain, which points to his preeminence. There are those who believe the original king of Sodom was killed along with the king of Gomorrah  (Genesis 14:10), and this was the king of Sodom’s replacement. At any rate we don’t know how many of the other kings if any survived this invasion or how many of the ordinary citizens survived, but the king of Sodom was willing to give up all the material goods and have just the people.

c. said [559 * ‘amar] [Strong: a primitive root; to say (used with great latitude):--answer, appoint, avouch, bid, boast self, call, certify, challenge, charge, + (at the, give) command(-ment), commune, consider, declare, demand, X desire, determine, X expressly, X indeed, X intend, name, X plainly, promise, publish, report, require, say, speak (against, of), X still, X suppose, talk, tell, term, X that is, X think, use (speech), utter, X verily, X yet.]

d. Abram [87 * ‘Abram] [Strong: contracted from 48; high father; Abram, the original name of Abraham:--Abram.]



2. “…Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself.”

a. give me [5414 * nathan] [Strong: a primitive root; to give, used with greatest latitude of application (put, make, etc.):--add, apply, appoint, ascribe, assign, X avenge, X be ((healed)), bestow, bring (forth, hither), cast, cause, charge, come, commit, consider, count, + cry, deliver (up), direct, distribute, do, X doubtless, X without fail, fasten, frame, X get, give (forth, over, up), grant, hang (up), X have, X indeed, lay (unto charge, up), (give) leave, lend, let (out), + lie, lift up, make, + O that, occupy, offer, ordain, pay, perform, place, pour, print, X pull , put (forth), recompense, render, requite, restore, send (out), set (forth), shew, shoot forth (up), + sing, + slander, strike, (sub-)mit, suffer, X surely, X take, thrust, trade, turn, utter, + weep, + willingly, + withdraw, + would (to) God, yield.]

b. the persons [5315 * nephesh] [Strong: from 5314; properly, a breathing creature, i.e. animal of (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental):--any, appetite, beast, body, breath, creature, X dead(-ly), desire, X (dis-)contented, X fish, ghost, + greedy, he, heart(-y), (hath, X jeopardy of) life (X in jeopardy), lust, man, me, mind, mortally, one, own, person, pleasure, (her-, him-, my-, thy-)self, them (your)-selves, + slay, soul, + tablet, they, thing, (X she) will, X would have it.]

c. and take [3947 * laqach] [Strong: a primitive root; to take (in the widest variety of applications):--accept, bring, buy, carry away, drawn, fetch, get, infold, X many, mingle, place, receive(-ing), reserve, seize, send for, take (away, -ing, up), use, win.]

d. the goods [7399 * ] [Strong: from passive participle of 7408; property (as gathered):--good, riches, substance.]

1). It almost seems like the king is bargaining with Abram, in the sense that Abram vanquished the person that vanquished this king. The king of Sodom was corrupt, he was probably a homosexual, he could care less about the goods but he wanted the persons. It seems like he considered them his property that he could use them as bargaining chips. Abram’s response I believe reveals his contempt toward the king. The only reason all these people were rescued, that is, the ones that survived, was because of Lot. What a powerful testament to the mercy of God. Lot was the salt in that community, even though in my opinion he should have never been there, he was still the salt.



Genesis 14:20

Genesis 14:20

And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.

a. NLT: And blessed be God Most High, who has defeated your enemies for you.”Then Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of all the goods he had recovered.

b. NIV: And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand.” Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

c. Young’s Literal Translation: and blessed is God Most High, who hath delivered thine adversaries into thy hand;' and he giveth to him a tenth of all.

d. Amplified Bible: And blessed, praised, and glorified be God Most High, Who has given your foes into your hand! And [Abram] gave him a tenth of all [he had taken].

e. Septuagint: and blessed be the most high God who delivered thine enemies into thy power. And Abram gave him the tithe of all. 

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings/Prophets: and blessed be God, the Most High, Who has delivered your foes into your hand”;

1. “And blessed be the most high God…”

a. blessed [1288 * barak] [Strong: a primitive root; to kneel; by implication to bless God (as an act of adoration), and (vice-versa) man (as a benefit); also (by euphemism) to curse (God or the king, as treason):--X abundantly, X altogether, X at all, blaspheme, bless, congratulate, curse, X greatly, X indeed, kneel (down), praise, salute, X still, thank.]

b. most high [5945 * elyown] [Strong: an elevation, i.e. (adj.) lofty (compar.); as title, the Supreme:--(Most, on) high(-er, -est), upper(-most).]

c. God [410 * el] [ Strong: strength; as adjective, mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity):--God (god), X goodly, X great, idol, might(-y one), power, strong.]

1). This is the third time the phrase, “most high God” is used in this passage.

2. “…which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand...”

a. which hath delivered [4042 * magan][Strong: to shield, to encompass, to rescue, to hand safely over, i.e., surrender.]

b. thine enemies [6862 * tsar] [Strong: narrow; (as a noun) a tight place (usually figuratively, i.e. trouble); also a pebble (as in 6864); (transitive) an opponent (as crowding):--adversary, afflicted(-tion), anguish, close, distress, enemy, flint, foe, narrow, small, sorrow, strait, tribulation, trouble.]

c. into thine hand [3027 * yad] [Strong: a primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from 3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote (as follows):--(+ be) able, X about, + armholes, at, axletree, because of, beside, border, X bounty, + broad, (broken-)handed, X by, charge, coast, + consecrate, + creditor, custody, debt, dominion, X enough, + fellowship, force, X from, hand(-staves, -y work), X he, himself, X in, labour, + large, ledge, (left-)handed, means, X mine, ministry, near, X of, X order, ordinance, X our, parts, pain, power, X presumptuously, service, side, sore, state, stay, draw with strength, stroke, + swear, terror, X thee, X by them, X themselves, X thine own, X thou, through, X throwing, + thumb, times, X to, X under, X us, X wait on, (way-)side, where, + wide, X with (him, me, you), work, + yield, X yourselves.]

1). The phrase “delivered thine enemies into thine hand”, is clearly from a covenant perspective especially looking at the Hebrew word for “delivered”.The use of the English word “delivered” confirms this.

a). Genesis 15:1 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.

b). Deuteronomy 33:29 Happy art thou, O Israel: who is like unto thee, O people saved by the LORD, the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy excellency! and thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee; and thou shalt tread upon their high places.

2). The wording of this part of the verse to me is a strong hint  that before Abram left to go on this mission, there was a covenant cut with “the most high God” to ensure victory and success. God “delivered” the four kings into Abram’s hands. The fore shadow is also of our authority in Christ, Ephesians 1:19-23.

2. “…And he gave him tithes of all.”

  1. he gave him [5414 * nathan] [Strong: a primitive root; to give, used with greatest latitude of application (put, make, etc.):--add, apply, appoint, ascribe, assign, X avenge, X be ((healed)), bestow, bring (forth, hither), cast, cause, charge, come, commit, consider, count, + cry, deliver (up), direct, distribute, do, X doubtless, X without fail, fasten, frame, X get, give (forth, over, up), grant, hang (up), X have, X indeed, lay (unto charge, up), (give) leave, lend, let (out), + lie, lift up, make, + O that, occupy, offer, ordain, pay, perform, place, pour, print, X pull , put (forth), recompense, render, requite, restore, send (out), set (forth), shew, shoot forth (up), + sing, + slander, strike, (sub-)mit, suffer, X surely, X take, thrust, trade, turn, utter, + weep, + willingly, + withdraw, + would (to) God, yield.]

b. tithe [4643 * ma’aser] [Strong: from 6240; a tenth; especially a tithe:-- tenth (part), tithe(-ing).]

1). This is the first time the word “tithes” is mentioned in Scripture. The occasion has all the earmarks of a worship service, the bread and wine of communion and intimate relationship, the blessing and the giving of tithe. The giving of tithe of all the goods Abram brought back was part of Abram’s obligation in the Covenant.

Genesis 14:19

Genesis 14:19

And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth:

1. “And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God…”

a. The writer of Hebrews says that Melchizedek was greater than Abram.

1). Hebrews 7:7 “And without all contradiction the less is blessed of the better.”

2). After giving all of Melchizedek’s titles and qualifications he tells us, “Now consider how great this man was,” Hebrews 7:4.

2. “…possessor of heaven and earth.”

a. possessor (7069 * qanah) To erect, to create, to procure, especially by purchase, to own.

b. The LORD is the owner of the earth.

1). Psalm 50:10-12 “For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a  thousand hills.
I know all the fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of the field are mine.
If I were hungry, I would not tell thee: for the world is mine, and the fullness thereof.”

2). Haggai 2:8 “The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the LORD of hosts.”

Genesis 14:18

Genesis 14:18

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God.

1. “Melchizedek king of Salem…”

a. Melchizedek (4442 * Malkiy-Tsedeq; melek-king; tsedeq-right) [king of righteousness: Hebrews 7:2. His name literally means “king of righteousness”.]

b. Salem (8004 * Shalem) Strongs: an early name of Jerusalem. [He was the king of Salem].

1). Hebrews 7:2 says that “by interpretation”, Melchizedek was, “King of righteousness”, King of Salem”, and King of Peace”.


c. The only other mention of Melchizedek in the Old Testament is in Psalm 110:4.

1). “The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek.”

d. In the New Testament Melchizedek is only mentioned in Hebrews 5:6, 10; 6:20; 7:1, 10, 11, 15, 17, 21.

e. In all of those references there is no mention of where he really came from, some have speculated that this unknown person could be Shem, the son of Noah or perhaps even a pre-incarnation appearance of Christ. Who ever this person is, the types and foreshadows in this event that all point to Jesus are sufficient to say this was a very spiritually special event.


2. “…brought forth bread and wine…”

a. This points to the atonement in Christ, Mark 14:22-25.

b. It also points to intimate relationship, Revelation 3:20.

3. “…and he was the priest of the most high God.”

a. most high (5945 * elyown) Supreme, most.

b. God (410 * el) God.

c. This order of priesthood was a foreshadow of the priesthood of Jesus, Psalm 110:4, Hebrews 7:14-17.

Genesis 14:17

Genesis 14:17

And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, which is the kings dale.

 a. NLT: After Abram returned from his victory over Kedorlaomer and all his allies, the king of Sodom went out to meet him in the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley).

b. NIV: After Abram returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings allied with him, the king of Sodom came out to meet him in the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley).

c. Young’s Literal Translation: And the king of Sodom goeth out to meet him (after his turning back from the smiting of Chedorlaomer, and of the kings who are with him), unto the valley of Shaveh, which is the king's valley.

d. Amplified Bible: After his [Abram’s] return from the defeat and slaying of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the Valley of Shaveh, that is, the King’s Valley.

e. Septuagint: And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after he returned from the slaughter of Chodollogomor, and the kings with him, to the valley of Saby; this was the plain of the kings.

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings/Prophets: The king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from defeating Chedolaomer and the kings that were with him, to the Valley of Shaveh which is the king’s valley.

  1. “And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and the kings that were with him,…”

a. and the king [4428 * melek] [Strong: from 4427; a king:--king, royal.]

b. of Sodom [5467 * Cdom] [Strong: from an unused root meaning to scorch; burnt (i.e. volcanic or bituminous) district; Sedom, a place near the Dead Sea:-- Sodom.]

c. went out [3318 * yatsa] [Strong: a primitive root; to go (causatively, bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proxim.:--X after, appear, X assuredly, bear out, X begotten, break out, bring forth (out, up), carry out, come (abroad, out, thereat, without), + be condemned, depart(-ing, -ure), draw forth, in the end, escape, exact, fail, fall (out), fetch forth (out), get away (forth, hence, out), (able to, cause to, let) go abroad (forth, on, out), going out, grow, have forth (out), issue out, lay (lie) out, lead out, pluck out, proceed, pull out, put away, be risen, X scarce, send with commandment, shoot forth, spread, spring out, stand out, X still, X surely, take forth (out), at any time, X to (and fro), utter.]

d. to meet [7125 * qir’ah] [Strong:  from 7122; an encountering, accidental, friendly or hostile (also adverbially, opposite):--X against (he come), help, meet, seek, X to, X in the way.]

e. after [310 * ‘achar] [Strong: from 309; properly, the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjunction, after (in various senses):--after (that, -ward), again, at, away from, back (from, -side), behind, beside, by, follow (after, -ing), forasmuch, from, hereafter, hinder end, + out (over) live, + persecute, posterity, pursuing, remnant, seeing, since, thence(-forth), when, with.]

f. his return [7725 * shuwb] [Strong: a primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbial, again:--((break, build, circumcise, dig, do anything, do evil, feed, lay down, lie down, lodge, make, rejoice, send, take, weep)) X again, (cause to) answer (+ again), X in any case (wise), X at all, averse, bring (again, back, home again), call (to mind), carry again (back), cease, X certainly, come again (back), X consider, + continually, convert, deliver (again), + deny, draw back, fetch home again, X fro, get (oneself) (back) again, X give (again), go again (back, home), (go) out, hinder, let, (see) more, X needs, be past, X pay, pervert, pull in again, put (again, up again), recall, recompense, recover, refresh, relieve, render (again), requite, rescue, restore, retrieve, (cause to, make to) return, reverse, reward, + say nay, send back, set again, slide back, still, X surely, take back (off), (cause to, make to) turn (again, self again, away, back, back again, backward, from, off), withdraw.]

g. from the slaughter (5221 * nakah) to strike, kill, make slaughter…[same word translated “smote in verse 15.]

1). The word “slaughter” is also used in the New Testament to describe this battle. The implication is that none were spared, Abram’s men killed them all.

a). Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;

b). In this verse we see that the king of Sodom coming to meet with Abram as he was returning from the battle and rescue. The king of Sodom had fled during his battle with the kings from Mesopotamia earlier in Genesis 14:10. Some teach that the king of Sodom died and this was his replacement.

h. of Chedorlaomer [3540 * ] [Strong:  of foreign origin; Kedorlaomer, an early Persian king:--Chedorlaomer.]

i. and the kings [4428 * melek] [Strong: from 4427; a king:--king, royal.]

2. “…at the valley of Shaveh, which is the kings dale.”

a. at the valley [6010 * ‘emeq] [Strong:   from 6009; a vale (i.e. broad depression):--dale, vale, valley (often used as a part of proper names).]

b. Shaveh [7740 * Shaveh] [Strong: from 7737; plain; Shaveh, a place in Palestine:--Shaveh.]

1). According to some sources the valley of Shaveh is north of Jerusalem.

a). Pulpit Commentary: “A valley about two stadia north of Jerusalem (Josephus, 'Ant.,' 8:10), supposed to be the valley of the Upper Kedron, where Absalom s pillar was after. wards erected (2 Samuel 18:18); which may be correct if the Salem afterwards mentioned was Jerusalem…”

2). Barnes Notes: The dale of Shaveh is here explained by the "King's dale." This phrase occurs at a period long subsequent as the name of the valley in which Absalom reared his pillar 2 Samuel 18:18. There is nothing to hinder the identity of the place, which must, according to the latter passage, have been not far from Jerusalem. Josephus makes the distance two stadia, which accords with the situation of Absalom's tomb, though the building now so-called, in the valley of Jehoshaphat, seems to be of later origin. The identity of the King's dale with the valley cast of Jerusalem, through which the Kedron flows, corresponds very well with the present passage.

3). According to the wording of the verse and the wording of the earlier verse where it gave the location of the battle, it means that the king of Sodom traveled about 40 miles northwest, from the mountains to which he fled during the battle to the valley of Shaveh just north of present day Jerusalem, which is the location of the ancient city of Salem, where Melchizedek was king.

Genesis 14:15

Genesis 14:15

And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus.

a. NLT: There he divided his men and attacked during the night. Kedorlaomer’s army fled, but Abram chased them as far as Hobah, north of Damascus.

b. NIV: During the night Abram divided his men to attack them and he routed them, pursuing them as far as Hobah, north of Damascus.

c. YLT: And he divideth himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smiteth them, and pursueth them unto Hobah, which is at the left of Damascus;

d. Amplified Bible:  He divided his forces against them by night, he and his servants, and attacked and routed them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus.

e. Septuagint: And he came upon them by night, he and his servants, and he smote them and pursued them as far as Choba, which is on the left of Damascus.

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings/Prophets: And he with his servants deployed against them at night and struck them; he pursued as far as Hobah which is to the north of Damascus.  

1. “And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them,…

a. he divided [2505 * chalaq] [Strong: a primitive root; to be smooth (figuratively); by implication (as smooth stones were used for lots) to apportion or separate:--deal, distribute, divide, flatter, give, (have, im-)part(-ner), take away a portion, receive, separate self, (be) smooth(-er).]

b. his servants [5650 * ‘ebed] [Strong: from 5647; a servant:--X bondage, bondman, (bond-)servant, (man-)servant.]

c. by night [3915 * liyil] [Strong: from the same as 3883; properly, a twist (away of the light), i.e. night; figuratively, adversity:--((mid-))night (season).]

d. smote [5221 * nakah] [Strong:  a primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively):--beat, cast forth, clap, give (wounds), X go forward, X indeed, kill, make (slaughter), murderer, punish, slaughter, slay(-er, -ing), smite(-r, -ing), strike, be stricken, (give) stripes, X surely, wound.]

1). The same Hebrew word translated “smote” in verse 15 is translated “slaughter” in verse 17.

2. “…and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus.”

a. pursued [7291 * radaph] [Strong: a primitive root; to run after (usually with hostile intent; figuratively (of time) gone by):--chase, put to flight, follow (after, on), hunt, (be under) persecute(-ion, -or), pursue(-r).]

b. unto Hobah [2327 * chowbah] [Strong: feminine active participle of 2247; hiding place; Chobah, a place in Syria:--Hobah.]

c. the left hand [8040 * smo’wl]] [Strong: a primitive word (rather perhaps from the same as 8071 (by insertion of the aleph) through the idea of wrapping up); properly, dark (as enveloped), i.e. the north; hence (by orientation), the left hand:--left (hand, side).]

d. Damascus [1834 * Dammeseq] [Strong: of foreign origin; Damascus, a city of Syria:--Damascus.]

Genesis 14:14

Genesis 14:14

And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan.

a. NLT: When Abram heard that his nephew Lot had been captured, he mobilized the 318 trained men who had been born into his household. Then he pursued Kedorlaomer’s army until he caught up with them at Dan.

b. NIV: When Abram heard that his relative had been taken captive, he called out the 318 trained men born in his household and went in pursuit as far as Dan.

c. Young’s Literal Translation: And Abram heareth that his brother hath been taken captive, and he draweth out his trained domestics, three hundred and eighteen, and pursueth unto Dan.

d. Amplified Bible: When Abram heard that [his nephew] had been captured, he armed (led forth) the 318 trained servants born in his own house and pursued the enemy as far as Dan.

e. Septuagint: And Abram having heard that Lot his nephew had been taken captive, numbered his own home-born servants three hundred and eighteen, and pursued after them to Dan.

f. Stone Edition Torah/Writings/Prophets: And when Abram heard that his kinsman was taken captive, he armed his disciples who had been born in his house—three hundred and eighteen—and he pursued them as far as Dan.

1. “And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen,…”

a. when Abram [87 * ‘Abram] [Strong: contracted from 48; high father; Abram, the original name of Abraham:--Abram.]

b. heard [8085 * shama’] [Strong: a primitive root; to hear intelligently (often with implication of attention, obedience, etc.; causatively, to tell, etc.):--X attentively, call (gather) together, X carefully, X certainly, consent, consider, be content, declare, X diligently, discern, give ear, (cause to, let, make to) hear(-ken, tell), X indeed, listen, make (a) noise, (be) obedient, obey, perceive, (make a) proclaim(-ation), publish, regard, report, shew (forth), (make a) sound, X surely, tell, understand, whosoever (heareth), witness.]

c. that his brother [251 * ‘ach] [Strong: a primitive word; a brother (used in the widest sense of literal relationship and metaphorical affinity or resemblance (like 1)):--another, brother(-ly); kindred, like, other.]

d. was taken captive [7617 * shabah] [Strong: a primitive root; to transport into captivity:--(bring away, carry, carry away, lead, lead away, take) captive(-s), drive (take) away.]

e. he armed [7324 * ruwk] [Strong: a primitive root; to pour out (literally or figuratively), i.e. empty:--X arm, cast out, draw (out), (make) empty, pour forth (out).]

f. his trained [2593 * chaniyk] [Strong: from 2596; initiated; i.e. practiced:--trained.]

g. born [3311 * yaliyd] [Strong: from 3205; born:--((home-))born, child, son.]

h. in his own house [1004 * bayith] [Strong: probably from 1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.):--court, daughter, door, + dungeon, family, + forth of, X great as would contain, hangings, home(born), (winter)house(-hold), inside(-ward), palace, place, + prison, + steward, + tablet, temple, web, + within(-out).]

i. three [7969 * shalowsh] [Strong: a primitive number; three; occasionally (ordinal) third, or (multipl.) thrice:--+ fork, + often(-times), third, thir(-teen, -teenth), three, + thrice.]

j. hundred [3967 * me’ah] [Strong:  properly, a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction:--hundred((-fold), -th), + sixscore.]

k. and eighteen [6240 * ‘asar] [Strong: for 6235; ten (only in combination), i.e. -teen; also (ordinal) -teenth:--(eigh-, fif-, four-, nine-, seven-, six-, thir-)teen(-th), + eleven(-th), + sixscore thousand, + twelve(-th).]

1). Eight [8083 * shmoneh] [Strong: apparently from 8082 through the idea of plumpness; a cardinal number, eight (as if a surplus above the "perfect" seven); also (as ordinal) eighth:--eight((-een, -eenth)), eighth.]

2). These 318 were just the men from Abram’s group. It is probable that the three Amorite brothers, Mamre, Eschol, and Aner also brought their men with them also. We must remember they were in covenant with Abram. There could have been upwards of one thousand men pursuing this army.

2. “…and pursued them unto Dan.”

a. pursued them [7291 * radaph] [Strong: a primitive root; to run after (usually with hostile intent; figuratively (of time) gone by):--chase, put to flight, follow (after, on), hunt, (be under) persecute(-ion, -or), pursue(-r).]

b. unto Dan [1835 * Dan] [Strong: from 1777; judge; Dan, one of the sons of Jacob; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory; likewise a place in Palestine colonized by them:--Dan.]

1). Dan is about 120 miles north of Mamre. It probably took about 6-8 days to catch up to this army. These kings and their army were on their way back to Mesopotamia. They would follow basically the same route they used when they came. North through Damascus and then southeast following the Euphrates River.