Monday, December 31, 2007

Hebrews 11:2

Hebrews 11:2

For by it the elders obtained a good report.

a. NLT: Through their faith, the people in days of old earned a good reputation.

b. NIV: This is what the ancients were commended for.

c. YLT: For in this were the elders testified of;

d. Amplified Bible Classic: For by [faith] trust and holy fervor born of faith] the men of old had divine testimony borne to them and obtained a good report.

e. Worrell Translation: For in this the elders were well reported of.

f. Wuest Translation: For by means of this [namely faith] the elders had witness borne to them.

1. For by it the elders obtained a good report.

a. Foe [Strong: gar gar a primary particle; properly, assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles):--and, as, because (that), but, even, for, indeed, no doubt, seeing, then, therefore, verily, what, why, yet.]

b. by [Strong: 1722 en en a primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), i.e. a relation of rest (intermediate between 1519 and 1537); "in," at, (up-)on, by, etc.:--about, after, against, + almost, X altogether, among, X as, at, before, between, (here-)by (+ all means), for (... sake of), + give self wholly to, (here-)in(-to, -wardly), X mightily, (because) of, (up-)on, (open-)ly, X outwardly, one, X quickly, X shortly, (speedi-)ly, X that, X there(-in, -on), through(-out), (un-)to(-ward), under, when, where(-with), while, with(-in). Often used in compounds, with substantially the same import; rarely with verbs of motion, and then not to indicate direction, except (elliptically) by a separate (and different) preposition.]

c. it [Strong: 5026 taute tow'-tay, and tauten tow'-tane, and tautes tow'-tace dative case, accusative case and genitive case respectively of the feminine singular of 3778; (towards or of) this:--her, + hereof, it, that, + thereby, the (same), this (same).]

d. the [Strong: 3588 ho ho, including the feminine he hay, and the neuter to to in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom):--the, this, that, one, he, she, it, etc.]

e. elders [Strong: 4245 presbuteros pres-boo'-ter-os comparative of presbus (elderly); older; as noun, a senior; specially, an Israelite Sanhedrist (also figuratively, member of the celestial council) or Christian "presbyter":-- elder(-est), old.]

f. obtained a good report [Strong: 3140 martureo mar-too-reh'-o from 3144; to be a witness, i.e. testify (literally or figuratively):--charge, give (evidence), bear record, have (obtain, of) good (honest) report, be well reported of, testify, give (have) testimony, (be, bear, give, obtain) witness.] [Bullinger: “To witness, be a witness, bear witness of, testify, to be well testified of, have a good witness borne in favor of.”

           1). What follows in Hebrews 11 is “the good report” that these men and women obtained.

Hebrews 11:1

Hebrews 11:1

Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.

a. NLT: Faith is the confidence that what we hope for will actually happen; it gives us assurance about things we cannot see.

b. NIV: Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.

c. YLT: And faith is of things hoped for a confidence, of matters not seen a conviction,

d. Amplified Bible Classic: Now faith is the assurance (the confirmation, the title deed) of the things [we] hope for, being the proof of things [we] do not see and the conviction of their reality [faith perceiving as real fact what is not revealed to the senses].

e. Worrell Translation: Now faith is an assurance of things hoped for, a sure persuasion of things not seen.

f. Wuest Translation: Now faith is the title deed of things hoped for, the proof of things which are not seen.

1. “Now faith…”

a. Now [1161 * de] [Strong: a primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.:--also, and, but, moreover, now (often unexpressed in English).

b. faith [Strong: 4102 pistis, pis'-tis; from 3982; persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction (of religious truth, or the truthfulness of God or a religious teacher), especially reliance upon Christ for salvation; abstractly, constancy in such profession; by extension, the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself:--assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity.]  [W.E. Vine: The main elements in faith in its relation to the invisible God…are especially brought out in the use of this noun and the corresponding verb, they are: 1. A firm conviction producing a full acknowledgement of god’s revelation or truth, His word. 2. A personal surrender to Him. 3. A conduct inspired by such surrender.]

1). Pink: “Crediting the sure testimony of God, resting on His promises, and expecting the accomplishment of them, faith gives the object hoped for at a future period, a present reality and power in the soul, as if already possessed, for the believer is satisfied with the security afforded, and acts under the full persuasion that God will not fail of His engagement. Faith gives the soul an appropriating hold of them…it gives not an imaginary appearance to things, but a real subsistence.”

2). Also faith by definition involves a previous instruction. God had to speak faith to the heart in order for the heart to experience “faith”.

a). Romans 10:17 So the faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

(1) There are two different Greek words for the English term translated  “word”, they are logos & rhema. The Greek word used in Romans 10:17 is rhema. A distinguishing of the two needs to be stated.

(2) Word [4487 * rhema] [Zodhiates: That which is spoken, a statement, word.] [W.E. Vine: “The significance of rhema (as distinct from logos) is exemplified in the injunction to take “the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God,” Ephesians 6:17; here the reference is not to the whole Bible as such, but to the individual scripture which the Spirit brings to our remembrance for use in time of need, a prerequisite being the regular storing of the mind with Scripture.”

(3) Word [3056 * logos] [Zodhiates: Intelligence, word as the expression of that intelligence, discourse, saying, thing.] [Vine: “The expression of thought…as embodying a concept or idea…a saying or statement…sometimes it is used as the sum of God’s utterances, a discourse, speech, of instruction, a word…Also a title of the Son of God.”]

(4) Dr. Charles Farah, Jr. Professor of Theology at ORU. “The Logos tends to be universal, while  the Rhema is often used as a particular…the Logos is eternal, while the Rhema is often contemporary…It is a word a man takes action on; a personal word he hears…”The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart…” Romans 10:8. Here the word Rhema is used, and I believe, though not all scholars would agree, that Paul is saying this: Because the word is in your heart, it is necessary to use the word Rhema rather than the Logos, because God’s word has become a personal word to you.”

b). In every verse that tells of a man or woman having faith, we must recognize that God had previously spoken, even though the text does not say it. The perfect example in our study is Hebrews 11:4, where because of faith, Abel offered a more excellent sacrifice than Cain. Many people wonder why Cain’s offering was rejected and why Abel’s was not. It was because there was a previous instruction that Abel from the heart obeyed and Cain did not. Even though the text does not show a previous instruction, the presence of faith in Abel demands it.

c). A logos word can become a rhema word through prayer and meditation and confession. See notes on Joshua 1:8 and Proverbs 4:20-22.

2. “…is the substance of things hoped for…”

a. is [2076 * esti] [Strong: third person singular present indicative of 1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are:--are, be(-long), call, X can(-not), come, consisteth, X dure for a while, + follow, X have, (that) is (to say), make, meaneth, X must needs, + profit, + remaineth, + wrestle.]

b. the substance [5287 * hupostasis] [Strong: from a compound of 5259 and 2476; a setting under (support), i.e. (figuratively) concretely, essence, or abstractly, assurance (objectively or subjectively):--confidence, confident, person, substance.] [Bullinger: What is set or stands under; underlayer, foundation; that which lies at the foundation of a matter, confidence.]

1). Other uses of this same word.

a). 2 Corinthians 9:4 Lest haply if they of Macedonia come with me, and find you unprepared, we (that we say not, ye) should be ashamed in this same confident boasting.

b). 2 Corinthians 11:17 That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord, but as it were foolishly, in this confidence of boasting.

c). Hebrews 3:14 For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;

c. of things hoped for [1679 *  elpizo] [Strong: from 1680; to expect or confide:--(have, thing) hope(-d) (for), trust.]

1). Pink: “…just so far as I am counting upon the  ability, fidelity  of the Promiser, shall I be confident of receiving  the things promised and which I am expecting.”

3. “…the evidence of things not seen.”

a. the evidence  [1650 * elenchos] [Strong: from 1651; proof, conviction:--evidence, reproof.]

1). Pink: The word evidence is derived from a verb which signifies “to convince”, and that by demonstration…The noun occurs in only one other place, 2 Timothy3:16, “reproof”, to give assurance and certainty to what is true. The word “evidence” in our text denotes that which furnishes proof, so that one is assured of the reality and certainty of things Divine.”

b. of things [4229 *  pragma] [Strong: from 4238; a deed; by implication, an affair; by extension, an object (material):--business, matter, thing, work.]

c. not [3756 * ou; also (before a vowel) ouk; and (before an aspirate) ouch] [Strong: a primary word; the absolute negative (compare 3361) adverb; no or not:--+ long, nay, neither, never, no (X man), none, (can-)not, + nothing, + special, un(-worthy), when, + without, + yet but.]

d. seen [991 * blepo] [Strong: a primary verb; to look at (literally or figuratively):--behold, beware, lie, look (on, to), perceive, regard, see, sight, take heed.]

1). Pink: The word evidence is derived from a verb which signifies “to convince”, and that by demonstration…The noun occurs in only one other place, 2 Timothy3:16, “reproof”, to give assurance and certainty to what is true. The word “evidence” in our text denotes that which furnishes proof, so that one is assured of the reality and certainty of things Divine.”

2). Institute Creation Research Daily Devotional 9/3/11 The eleventh chapter of Hebrews, known as the great Hall of Fame of Faith reciting the faith and resulting action of many Old Testament heroes, begins with a description of what faith is.
 First, we see that it is the "substance of things hoped for." Biblically, we know that the Christian "hope" is a hope so real it has substance in the present. None of the people of faith recited in this chapter actually saw the promises made to them come to fruition, but they so believed in them that they lived in the present as if the future were reality. The word "substance" occurs only two other times in Hebrews. It is used to speak of Christ as the exact representation of God's essence and nature, "Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person |i.e., substance|" (Hebrews 1:3). It is also translated "confidence," "for we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end" (Hebrews 3:14), and speaks of a deep assurance. Putting this all together, our text could then be rendered, "faith is the essence of our assurance of things yet in the future." The word "evidence" could be translated "conviction," or even "proof." The word implies a logical, airtight argument. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof |same word as 'evidence'|, for correction, for instruction in righteousness" (2 Timothy 3:16). This sort of evidence is something we know to be true, something about which we have such conviction we act accordingly.  The first half of the verse brings a future truth down into the present; the second half commits our lives to that truth. JDM

Saturday, December 29, 2007

Hebrews 7:8

Hebrews 7:8

And here men that die receive tithes; but there he receiveth them of whom it is witnessed that he liveth.

a. NLT: The priests who collect tithes are men who die, so Melchizedek is greater than they are, because we are told that he lives on.

b. NIV: In the one case, the tenth is collected by people who die; but in the other case, by him who is declared to be living.

c. YLT: and here, indeed, men who die do receive tithes, and there he, who is testified to that he was living,

d. Amplified Bible: Furthermore, here [in the Levitical priesthood] tithes are received by men who are subject to death; but in that case [concerning Melchizedek], they are received by one of whom it is testified that he lives on [perpetually].

e. Worrell Translation: And here, indeed men who die receive tithes; but there, one received them who receives witness that he lives.

1.”And here men that die receive tithes…”

a. and [2532 * kai] [Strong: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

b. here [5602 * hode] [Strong: from an adverb form of 3592; in this same spot, i.e. here or hither:--here, hither, (in) this place, there.]

c. [3303 * men] [Strong: a primary particle; properly, indicative of affirmation or concession (in fact); usually followed by a contrasted clause with 1161 (this one, the former, etc.):--even, indeed, so, some, truly, verily. Often compounded with other particles in an intensive or asseverative sense.]

d. men [444 * Anthropos] [Strong: from 435 and ops (the countenance; from 3700); man-faced, i.e. a human being:--certain, man.]

e. that die [599 *  apothnesko] [Strong: from 575 and 2348; to die off (literally or figuratively):--be dead, death, die, lie a-dying, be slain (X with).]

f. receive [2983 * lambano] [Strong: a prolonged form of a primary verb, which is use only as an alternate in certain tenses; to take (in very many applications, literally and figuratively (properly objective or active, to get hold of; whereas 1209 is rather subjective or passive, to have offered to one; while 138 is more violent, to seize or remove)):--accept, + be amazed, assay, attain, bring, X when I call, catch, come on (X unto), + forget, have, hold, obtain, receive (X after), take (away, up).]

g. tithes [1181 * dekate] [Strong: feminine of 1182; a tenth, i.e. as a percentage or (technically) tithe:--tenth (part), tithe.]

1). When Paul wrote Hebrews, tithing was a practice that Jews had obeyed for over a thousand years, but it also continued to be practiced by Messianic Jews, Jews who had accepted Jesus as the Messiah.

a). Acts 6:7 And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly; and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith.

b). Acts 21:20 And when they heard it, they glorified the Lord, and said unto him, Thou seest, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe; and they are all zealous of the law:

2). The present tense used in this verse and in a number of other verses associated with temple worship (Hebrews 8:4; 9:4; 10:1; 13:10), probably means the temple had not yet been destroyed.  The temple was destroyed in 70 A.D. Paul was martyred probably in the middle to late 60’s of the first century. This would explain in part, the wording of the beginning of verse 8.

2. “…but there he receiveth them of whom it is witnessed that he liveth.”

a. but [1161 * de] [Strong: a primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.:--also, and, but, moreover, now (often unexpressed in English).]

b. there [1563 * ekei] [Strong: of uncertain affinity; there; by extension, thither:--there, thither(-ward), (to) yonder (place).]

c. it is witnessed [3140 * martureo] [Strong: from 3144; to be a witness, i.e. testify (literally or figuratively):--charge, give (evidence), bear record, have (obtain, of) good (honest) report, be well reported of, testify, give (have) testimony, (be, bear, give, obtain) witness.]

d. that [3754 * hoti] [Strong: neuter of 3748 as conjunction; demonstrative, that (sometimes redundant); causative, because:--as concerning that, as though, because (that), for (that), how (that), (in) that, though, why.]

e. he liveth [2198 * zao] [Strong: a primary verb; to live (literally or figuratively):--life(-time), (a-)live(-ly), quick.]

1). The writer (probably Paul) is contrasting the receiving of tithes, “here” and “there”. “Here” of course meaning here on earth by Levites in the temple and probably congregations of Messianic Jews and Gentiles, and “there” referring to heaven. The “he” in this verse is no doubt referring to Jesus. The Amplified writes that the “he” is Melchizedek. I personally believe that although Melchizedek is in the passage, he is only there to point to Christ Jesus. I believe the “he” in heaven is Christ.

a). Hebrews 7:13, 14 For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar.
7:14 For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Judah; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood.

2). When we pay tithes and offerings, the Lord Jesus receives them in heaven and offers them to the Father.

a). Hebrews 8:1-3 Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the Majesty in the heavens.
8:2 A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man.
8:3 For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is of necessity that this man have somewhat to also to offer.

a). This is primarily referring to Jesus offering his blood on the Mercy Seat in heaven.

(1) Hebrews 9:11-14 But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, but a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building;
9:12 Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood e entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us.
9:13 For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh:
9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

b). But it is also referring to the other spiritual sacrifices we offer to Jesus and he in turn offers them to the Father.

(1) Our tithes and offerings: Hebrews 7:8

(2) Our confession, the words of our mouth: Hebrews 3:1.

(3) Our praise: Hebrews 13:15.

(4) Our obedience to his will: Romans 12:1, 2.

c). While I do not believe the Body of Christ is under the Old Covenant tithe, at the same time, if the Jews could give 23% of their total income just in tithe every year[the adding of all three tithes every three years], under the Old Covenant, can’t we who are under a better Covenant give at least 10%.