Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Romans 4:21

Romans 4:21

And being fully persuaded, that what he had promised, he was able to perform.

a. NLT: He was fully convinced that God is able to do whatever he promises.

b. NIV: being fully persuaded that God had power to do what he had promised.

c. Amplified Bible: Fully satisfied and assured that God was able and mighty to keep His word and to do what He had promised.

d. Young’s Literal Translation: and having been fully persuaded that what He hath promised He is able also to do:

e. Worrell Translation: and being fully assured that what he had promised, He was able also to perform.

1. “And being fully persuaded…”

a. And [2532 * kai] [Strong: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

b. fully persuaded [4135 * plerophoreo; pleres-full; phoreo-to fill.] [Zodhiates: To fulfill, thoroughly accomplish, equivelant to persuade fully, give full assurance.] [Strong: from 4134 and 5409; to carry out fully (in evidence), i.e. completely assure (or convince), entirely accomplish:--most surely believe, fully know (persuade), make full proof of.]

1). The event of Genesis 17:1-22 fully persuaded Abraham in faith.

a). Romans 10:17 Faith comes by hearing and hearing by the word of God.

2). Abraham became fully persuaded that what God had promised, God was able to perform.

2. “…that what he had promised, he was able to perform.”

a. that [3754 * hoti] [Strong:  neuter of 3748 as conjunction; demonstrative, that (sometimes redundant); causative, because:--as concerning that, as though, because (that), for (that), how (that), (in) that, though, why.]

b. what [3739 * hos] [Strong: including feminine he hay, and neuter ho ho probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article 3588); the relatively (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that:--one, (an-, the) other, some, that, what, which, who(-m, -se), etc.]

c. promised [1861 * epaggello] [Strong: from 1909 and the base of 32; to announce upon (reflexively), i.e. (by implication) to engage to do something, to assert something respecting oneself:--profess, (make) promise.]

d. he was [2076 * esti] [Strong: third person singular present indicative of 1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are:--are, be(-long), call, X can(-not), come, consisteth, X dure for a while, + follow, X have, (that) is (to say), make, meaneth, X must needs, + profit, + remaineth, + wrestle.]

e. able [1415 * dunatos] [Strong: from 1410; powerful or capable (literally or figuratively); neuter possible:--able, could, (that is) mighty (man), possible, power, strong.]

f. also [2532 * kai] [Strong: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

g. perform [4160 * poieo] [Strong: apparently a prolonged form of an obsolete primary; to make or do (in a very wide application, more or less direct):--abide, + agree, appoint, X avenge, + band together, be, bear, + bewray, bring (forth), cast out, cause, commit, + content, continue, deal, + without any delay, (would) do(-ing), execute, exercise, fulfil, gain, give, have, hold, X journeying, keep, + lay wait, + lighten the ship, make, X mean, + none of these things move me, observe, ordain, perform, provide, + have purged, purpose, put, + raising up, X secure, shew, X shoot out, spend, take, tarry, + transgress the law, work, yield.]



Romans 4:20

Romans 4:20

He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith giving glory to God;

1. “He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief…”

a. staggered [1252 * diakrino] [Zodhiates: To be at strife with oneself, i.e. to doubt, hesitate, waver.]

2. “…but was strong in faith giving glory to God…”

a. Here are two examples of giving glory to God in the gospels.

1). Matthew 9:8 “But when the multitudes saw it, they marveled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men.”

2). Luke 13:13 “And he laid his hands on her: and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God.”

3). The difference between the two examples above and Abraham was they did it after the fact while Abraham did it before the fact.

a). While the opportunity to stagger in

unbelief was there, Abraham chose to give

glory to God, to speak what God had spoken.

b). 2 Corinthians 4:13 “We having the same spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; we also believe, and therefore speak.”

a. Vincent’s Word Studies: “was strengthened”.

b. [Amplified Bible] “…he grew strong and was empowered by faith as he gave praise and glory to God.”

c. As he gave praise and glory to God he was strengthened in his faith, and as that happened he received a quickening in his physical body that enabled him to have children.

Romans 4:19

Romans 4:19

And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about a hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sarah’s womb:

a. NLT: And Abraham’s faith did not weaken, even though, at about 100 years of age, he figured his body was as good as dead—and so was Sarah’s womb.

b. NIV: Without weakening in his faith, he faced the fact that his body was as good as dead—since he was about a hundred years old—and that Sarah’s womb was also dead.

c. Amplified Bible:   He did not weaken in faith when he considered the [utter] impotence of his own body, which was as good as dead because he was about a hundred years old, or [when he considered] the barrenness of Sarah’s [deadened] womb.

d. Worrell Translation: And, being not weakened in faith, he attentively considered his own body already dead (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah’s womb;

1. “And being not weak in faith…”

a. And [2532 * kai] [Strong: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

b. not [3361 * me] [Strong: a primary particle of qualified negation (whereas 3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverb) not, (conjunction) lest; also (as an interrogative implying a negative answer (whereas 3756 expects an affirmative one)) whether:--any but (that), X forbear, + God forbid, + lack, lest, neither, never, no (X wise in), none, nor, (can-)not, nothing, that not, un(-taken), without. Often used in compounds in substantially the same relations.]

c. weak [770 * astheneo] [Strong: from 772; to be feeble (in any sense):--be diseased, impotent folk (man), (be) sick, (be, be made) weak.]

d. faith [4102 * pistis] [Strong: from 3982; persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction (of religious truth, or the truthfulness of God or a religious teacher), especially reliance upon Christ for salvation; abstractly, constancy in such profession; by extension, the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself:--assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity.]  [Vine: The main elements in faith in its relation to the invisible God…are especially brought out in the use of this noun and the corresponding verb, they are: 1. A firm conviction producing a full acknowledgement of God’s revelation or truth [His word]. 2. A personal surrender to Him. 3. A conduct inspired by such surrender.]

1). How was Abraham not weak in faith? The rest of the verse gives the definition.

2. “…he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about a hundred years old…”

a. considered [2657 * katanoeo] [Zodhiates: to  observe, notice, contemplate, consider.] [Strong: from 2596 and 3539; to observe fully:--behold, consider, discover, perceive.]

b. not [3756 * ou] [Strong: also (before a vowel) ouk ook, and (before an aspirate) ouch ookh a primary word; the absolute negative (compare 3361) adverb; no or not:--+ long, nay, neither, never, no (X man), none, (can-)not, + nothing, + special, un(-worthy), when, + without, + yet but.]

1). Looking closely at the various translations we will see that some translations say Abraham did not consider, or considered not, while others say he did consider his body. The reason for this is shown in the note in the Holman translation: “Other manuscripts read he did not consider.” The reason for the differences in translation is because of the differences in manuscripts. That being said, those who have delved into the study of textual criticism (which I have a little bit), or who have studied New Testament Greek (which I have not), are familiar with the arguments over the preferences of manuscripts. Personally, I generally prefer the King James Version and the text that backs it up, the Textus Receptus or the Received Text. There are exceptions, but this is not one of them. If you took the time (which I have in the past but will not now), to look at the Greek text from which all the translations that say “Abraham considered his body” such as the NIV, the ASV, the NASB and the other like translations, you would not find the Greek word “ou” Strong # 3756, in the  in the text. However, if you did take the time (which I have in the past, but will not now), of looking at the text behind the King James Version, you will find the Greek word  “ou” Strong # 3756, in the text, and translated “not”. This is why there are differences in the translations. In the first four examples below, the English Standard Version, Holman Christian Standard Bible, New American Standard Bible and the Revised Standard Version as the well as the four examples at the beginning of this verse study, the translations will say Abraham considered his body. The last two, Young’s Literal Translation and the Hebrew Names Version, both say he did not consider his body.

a). English Standard Version:  He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead (since he was about a hundred years old), or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah’s womb.

b). Holman Christian Standard Bible: He considered his own body to be already dead (since he was about 100 years old) and also considered the deadness of Sarah’s womb, without weakening in the faith.

(1)   Note in Holman Translation: Other manuscripts read he did not consider.

c). New American Standard Bible: Without becoming weak in faith he contemplated his own body, now as good as dead since he was about a hundred years old, and the deadness of Sarah’s womb;

d). Revised Standard Version: He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead because he was about a hundred years old, or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah's womb.

e). Young’s Literal Translation: and not having been weak in the faith, he did not consider his own body, already become dead, (being about a hundred years old,) and the deadness of Sarah's womb,

f). Hebrew Names Version: Without being weakened in faith, he didn't consider his own body, already having been worn out, (he being about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb.

2). I prefer the King James, Young’s Literal Translation and the Hebrew Names Version on purely doctrinal grounds. Notice the following verses dealing with the characteristics of faith.  

a). 2 Corinthians 4:18 While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.

b). 2 Corinthians 5:7 (For we walk by faith, not by sight:)

c). Abraham, by faith, chose not to look at what he could see in his own body that was about one hundred years old. He chose to look at what was spoken to him by God. Hence, “he considered not his own body”.

c. dead [3499 * nekroo] [Zodhiates: deadened, means dead, powerless, impotent, referring to the body.] [Strong: from 3498; to deaden, i.e. (figuratively) to subdue:--be dead, mortify.]

1). Why would the Bible call Abraham’s body dead when it was obviously alive? I believe the Scripture is calling attention to the reproductive abilities of not only Sarah but also Abraham. I have 5 Greek Dictionaries, Zodhiates, Vines, Thayer’s, Bullinger, and Strongs; of those five only two Zodhiates and Thayer give the term “impotent” in their definition. Vine’s, Bullinger, and Strong’s do not. I personally believe that Abraham was impotent, the older word now described as ED, erectile dysfunction.

3. “…neither yet the deadness of Sarah’s womb.”

a. neither yet [2532 * kai] [Strong: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

b. deadness [3500 * nekrosis] [Strong: from 3499; decease; figuratively, impotency:--deadness, dying.]

1). Sarai according Genesis 11:30 was barren even in the years she was young enough to have children.

a). Genesis 11:30  But Sarai was barren; she had no child.

2). She also had gone through menopause.

a). Genesis 18:11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.

3). It was naturally and scientifically impossible for this couple to have children.



Romans 4:18

Romans 4:18

Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations; according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.

a. NLT: Even when there was no reason for hope, Abraham kept hoping—believing that he would become the father of many nations. For God had said to him, “That’s how many descendants you will have!

b. NIV: Against all hope, Abraham in hope believed and so became the father of many nations, just as it had been said to him, “So shall your offspring be.”

c. Amplified Bible: [For Abraham, human reason for] hope being gone, hoped in faith that he should become the father of many nations, as he had been promised, So [numberless] shall your descendants be.

d. Worrell Translation: who, past hope, believed against hope, to the end that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, “So shall your seed be.”

1. “Who against hope believed in hope,

a. Who [3739 * hos] [Strong:  including feminine he hay, and neuter ho, ho probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article 3588); the relatively (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that:--one, (an-, the) other, some, that, what, which, who(-m, -se), etc.]

b. against [3844 * para] [Strong: a primary preposition; properly, near; i.e. (with genitive case) from beside (literally or figuratively), (with dative case) at (or in) the vicinity of (objectively or subjectively), (with accusative case) to the proximity with (local (especially beyond or opposed to) or causal (on account of):--above, against, among, at, before, by, contrary to, X friend, from, + give (such things as they), + that (she) had, X his, in, more than, nigh unto, (out) of, past, save, side...by, in the sight of, than, (there-)fore, with. In compounds it retains the same variety of application.]

c. hope [1680 * elpis] [Strong: from a primary elpo (to anticipate, usually with pleasure); expectation (abstractly or concretely) or confidence:--faith, hope.]

1). I am fully persuaded that both the Amplified and the Worrell translations nail it here. This is describing Abram’s spiritual and emotional state just before God appeared to him in Genesis 17. The Amplified reads, “For Abraham, human reason for hope being gone”, while the Worrell reads, “who, past hope”. The 14 year gap of El Shaddai not speaking to him led Abram to being “past hope” his own “human reason for hope” was gone. The powerful mountain top experiences of Genesis 15 were 14 years in the past. Abram was past hope, all human reasoning for it was dashed.       

d. believed [4100 * pisteuo] [Strong;  from 4102; to have faith (in, upon, or with respect to, a person or thing), i.e. credit; by implication, to entrust (especially one's spiritual well-being to Christ):--believe(-r), commit (to trust), put in trust with.]

e. in [1909 * epi] [Strong: a primary preposition; properly, meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution (with the genitive case), i.e. over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.:--about (the times), above, after, against, among, as long as (touching), at, beside, X have charge of, (be-, (where-))fore, in (a place, as much as, the time of, -to), (because) of, (up-)on (behalf of), over, (by, for) the space of, through(-out), (un-)to(-ward), with. In compounds it retains essentially the same import, at, upon, etc. (literally or figuratively).]

f. hope [1680 * elpis] [Strong: from a primary elpo (to anticipate, usually with pleasure); expectation (abstractly or concretely) or confidence:--faith, hope.]

1). In Romans 4:17-22 we see what happened in Abraham’s spiritual life, his faith after Genesis 17:1-22. As we shall see, from the moment God appeared to him in Genesis 17, Abraham began to resist the past hope being dashed, resisting the human reasoning that his hope was gone, believing instead the renewed hope, inspired by the appearance of God to him, that he would be the father of many nations.

2. “…that he might become the father of many nations…”

a. that [1519 * eis] [Strong: a primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases:--(abundant-)ly, against, among, as, at, (back-)ward, before, by, concerning, + continual, + far more exceeding, for (intent, purpose), fore, + forth, in (among, at, unto, -so much that, -to), to the intent that, + of one mind, + never, of, (up-)on, + perish, + set at one again, (so) that, therefore(-unto), throughout, til, to (be, the end, -ward), (here-)until(-to), ...ward, (where-)fore, with. Often used in composition with the same general import, but only with verbs (etc.) expressing motion (literally or figuratively).]

b. he [846 * autos] [Strong:  from the particle au (perhaps akin to the base of 109 through the idea of a baffling wind) (backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the comparative 1438) of the third person , and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons:--her, it(-self), one, the other, (mine) own, said, (self-), the) same, ((him-, my-, thy- )self, (your-)selves, she, that, their(-s), them(-selves), there(-at, - by, -in, -into, -of, -on, -with), they, (these) things, this (man), those, together, very, which.]

c. become [1096 * ginomai] [Strong: a prolongation and middle voice form of a primary verb; to cause to be ("gen"-erate), i.e. (reflexively) to become (come into being), used with great latitude (literal, figurative, intensive, etc.):--arise, be assembled, be(-come, -fall, -have self), be brought (to pass), (be) come (to pass), continue, be divided, draw, be ended, fall, be finished, follow, be found, be fulfilled, + God forbid, grow, happen, have, be kept, be made, be married, be ordained to be, partake, pass, be performed, be published, require, seem, be showed, X soon as it was, sound, be taken, be turned, use, wax, will, would, be wrought.]

d. father [3962 * pater] [Strong:  apparently a primary word; a "father" (literally or figuratively, near or more remote):--father, parent.]

e. many [4183 * polys] [Strong: including the forms from the alternate pollos; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverbial, largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely:--abundant, + altogether, common, + far (passed, spent), (+ be of a) great (age, deal, -ly, while), long, many, much, oft(-en (-times)), plenteous, sore, straitly.]

f. nations [1484 * ethnos] [Strong:  probably from 1486; a race (as of the same habit), i.e. a tribe; specially, a foreign (non-Jewish) one (usually, by implication, pagan):--Gentile, heathen, nation, people.]

1). After God appeared to him again and spoke to him, in Genesis 17, his faith and hope were renewed and he believed in hope that he might become the father of many nations.
           
2. “…according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.”

a. according [2596 * kata] [Strong: a primary particle; (prepositionally) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined):--about, according as (to), after, against, (when they were) X alone, among, and, X apart, (even, like) as (concerning, pertaining to touching), X aside, at, before, beyond, by, to the charge of, (charita-)bly, concerning, + covered, (dai-)ly, down, every, (+ far more) exceeding, X more excellent, for, from ... to, godly, in(-asmuch, divers, every, -to, respect of), ... by, after the manner of, + by any means, beyond (out of) measure, X mightily, more, X natural, of (up-)on (X part), out (of every), over against, (+ your) X own, + particularly, so, through(-oughout, -oughout every), thus, (un-)to(-gether, -ward), X uttermost, where(-by), with. In composition it retains many of these applications, and frequently denotes opposition, distribution, or intensity.]

b. that which was spoken [2046 * ereo] [Strong: probably a fuller form of 4483; an alternate for 2036 in certain tenses; to utter, i.e. speak or say:--call, say, speak (of), tell.]

c. so [3779 * houto] [Strong: or (before a vowel houtos hoo'-toce adverb from 3778; in this way (referring to what precedes or follows):--after that, after (in) this manner, as, even (so), for all that, like(-wise), no more, on this fashion(-wise), so (in like manner), thus, what.]

d. shall [2071 * esomai] [Strong: future of 1510; will be:--shall (should) be (have), (shall) come (to pass), X may have, X fall, what would follow, X live long, X sojourn.]

e. thy [4675 * sou] [Strong: genitive case of 4771; of thee, thy:--X home, thee, thine (own), thou, thy.]

f. seed [4690 * sperma] [Strong: from 4687; something sown, i.e. seed (including the male "sperm"); by implication, offspring; specially, a remnant (figuratively, as if kept over for planting):--issue, seed.]

g. be [2071 * esomai] See “shall” above.

1). It is here that we see that the fresh rhema of Genesis 17 not only ignited Abraham’s faith and hope, but it inspired him to reconnect with the rhema of the last recorded time when God appeared to Abraham.

a).  Genesis 15:1-5 After these things the word of the Lord came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.
15:2 And Abram said, Lord God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus?
15:3 And Abram said, Behold, to me thou hast given no seed: and, lo, one born in my house is mine heir.
15:4 And, behold, the word of the Lord came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.
15:5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.

b). Abraham with faith and hope renewed, was linking what God was speaking in Genesis 17 to what God had spoken to him in Genesis 15 when the Covenant was originally cut.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Romans 4:17

Romans 4:17

(As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not as though they were,

a. NLT: That is what the Scriptures mean when God told him, “I have made you the father of many nations.” This happened because Abraham believed in the God who brings the dead back to life and who creates new things out of nothing.

b. NIV: As it is written: “I have made you a father of many nations.” He is our father in the sight of God, in whom he believed—the God who gives life to the dead and calls into being things that were not.

c. Amplified Bible: As it is written, I have made you the father of many nations. [He was appointed our father] in the sight of God in Whom he believed, Who gives life to the dead and speaks of the nonexistent things that [He has foretold and promised] as if they [already] existed.

d. Worrell Translation: (as it has been written, “A father of many nations have I made you”), before God Whome he believed, Who maketh alive the dead, and calleth the things that are not, as though they were;

e. Summary: While Abram was living in Ur of the Chaldees, God appeared to him: Acts 7:2. He moved to Haraan with his family, his wife Sarai, his father, his brother and his wife and their son Lot. Abrams father Terah dies in Haraan and so Abram, his wife Sarai and his nephew Lot go into Canaan. At this time Abram was 75 years old, Genesis 12:4. In Genesis 13, Abram and Lot separate, with Lot choosing to dwell near Sodom. In Genesis 14, five kings from Mesopotamia come into Canaan and sack everything in their path, including the five cities of the plain, which is where Lot was living. Abram makes a covenant with the Amorite brothers before God to go rescue Lot. God blesses him and he is wonderfully successful. In Genesis 15 all the promises God has made to Abram about the land and his seed are solidified in the cutting of a Covenant. Genesis 14 and 15 are mountaintop experiences for Abram, it doesn’t get any better than this under the old Covenant. Then you have the debacle of Genesis 16 when Abram and Sarai try to fulfill the plan of God in their own flesh by letting Abram sleep with Hagar in order to try to get the promised seed. That brings us to Genesis 17. Romans 4:17-21 should not be studied unless the passage in Genesis 17:1-22 is looked at also. Romans 4:17-21 gives the facts of what happened in Abraham’s spiritual life after Genesis 17, the spiritual process of obedience to faith.

1. “(As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations)…”

a. As [2531 * kathos] [Strong: from 2596 and 5613; just (or inasmuch) as, that:--according to, (according, even) as, how, when.]

b. it is written [1125 * grapho] [Strong: a primary verb; to "grave", especially to write; figuratively, to describe:--describe, write(-ing, -ten).]

c. This Greek word is not assigned an English word in the text [3754 * hoti] [Strong: neuter of 3748 as conjunction; demonstrative, that (sometimes redundant); causative, because:--as concerning that, as though, because (that), for (that), how (that), (in) that, though, why.] [Zodhiates: That (demonstrative), because (causal)…As a demonstrative it stands particularly for “this”, “that which”, “this which”, introducing the object, contents, or argument to which the preceding words refer. As a causal, it is particularly equivalent to for, for this reason, assigning the cause, motive, ground of something, “that, because”…]

d. I have made [5087 * tithemi] [Strong: a prolonged form of a primary theo theh'-o (which is used only as alternate in certain tenses) to place (in the widest application, literally and figuratively; properly, in a passive or horizontal posture, and thus different from 2476, which properly denotes an upright and active position, while 2749 is properly reflexive and utterly prostrate):--+ advise, appoint, bow, commit, conceive, give, X kneel down, lay (aside, down, up), make, ordain, purpose, put, set (forth), settle, sink down.]

e. thee [4571 * se] [Strong: accusative case singular of 4771; thee:--thee, thou, X thy house.]

f. father [3962 * pater] [Strong: apparently a primary word; a "father" (literally or figuratively, near or more remote):--father, parent.]

g. many [4183 * polys] [Strong: including the forms from the alternate pollos; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverbial, largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely:--abundant, + altogether, common, + far (passed, spent), (+ be of a) great (age, deal, -ly, while), long, many, much, oft(-en (-times)), plenteous, sore, straitly.]

h. nations [1484 * ethnos] [Strong: probably from 1486; a race (as of the same habit), i.e. a tribe; specially, a foreign (non-Jewish) one (usually, by implication, pagan):--Gentile, heathen, nation, people.]

1). This was spoken to Abram at the moment that Almighty God [El Shaddai] was changing his name to Abraham, which means Father of many nations.

a). Genesis 17:4, 5 As for me, behold my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations.
17:5 Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee.

2). In Genesis 17:2 God said, “And I will make my covenant between me and thee…”

a). Bible History Old Testament History, Alfred Edersheim, Hendrickson Publishers, Third Printing, 1998; page 65; Note #1. “The Expression “I will make my covenant” (Genesis 17:2 is quite different from that rendered by the same words in Genesis 15:18. In the latter case it is “to make”, literally, to cut a covenant”; while the terms in Genesis 17:2 are, “I will give My Covenant,” i.e., establish, fulfill.

b). make [5414 * nathan] [Strongs: to give, bring forth, cause, commit to it, do, charge. Genesis 17:2.

c). made [3772 * karath] [Strongs: to cut, to Covenant, to make an alliance or bargin,
originally by cutting flesh and passing between the pieces.  

d). Even though in the English translation the words of Genesis 15:18 and Genesis 17:2 are very similar, in the Hebrew Genesis 15:18 refers to the initial cutting of the Covenant,
while Genesis 17:2 refers to the giving and causing it to come to pass.   
 
2. “…before him whom he believed…”

a. before [2713 * katenanti; kata-against; enanti-opposite, before.] [Zodhiates: Literally it means down over against, at the point over against, opposite…In the sense of “before” or “in the sight of”.] [Strong: from 2596 and 1725; directly opposite:--before, over against.]

1). In the margin of the KJV it reads, “before him: or, like unto him”. No other translation or Greek dictionary I have has that reference.

b. him whom [3739 * hos] [Strong:  including feminine he hay, and neuter ho, ho probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article 3588); the relatively (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that:--one, (an-, the) other, some, that, what, which, who(-m, -se), etc.]

c. believed [4100 * pisteuo] [Strong: from 4102; to have faith (in, upon, or with respect to, a person or thing), i.e. credit; by implication, to entrust (especially one's spiritual well-being to Christ):--believe(-r), commit (to trust), put in trust with.]

3. “…even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not as though they were,”

a. God [2316 * theos] [Strong: of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with 3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively, a magistrate; by Hebraism, very:--X exceeding, God, god(-ly, -ward).]

b. quickeneth [2227 * zoopoieo; zoos-alive; poieo-to make] [Zodhiates: to make alive, used primarily in the NT of raising the dead to life (John 5:21; Romans 4:17; Romans 8:11; 1 Corinthians 15:22, 36, to germinate; 1 Peter 3:18 Generally used in refrence to salvation, answering to the Pauline connection between righteousness and life.] [Strong:  from the same as 2226 and 4160; to (re-)vitalize (literally or figuratively):--make alive, give life, quicken.]

c. dead [3498 * nekros] [Strong: from an apparently primary nekus (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun):--dead.]

d. and [2532 * kai] [Strong: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

e. calleth [2564 * kaleo] [Strong: akin to the base of 2753; to "call" (properly, aloud, but used in a variety of applications, directly or otherwise):--bid, call (forth), (whose, whose sur-)name (was (called)).]

f. those things [5607 * on] [Strong: including the feminine ousa oo'-sah; and the neuter on on present participle of 1510; being:--be, come, have.]

g. not [3361 * me] [Strong: a primary particle of qualified negation (whereas 3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverb) not, (conjunction) lest; also (as an interrogative implying a negative answer (whereas 3756 expects an affirmative one)) whether:--any but (that), X forbear, + God forbid, + lack, lest, neither, never, no (X wise in), none, nor, (can-)not, nothing, that not, un(-taken), without. Often used in compounds in substantially the same relations.]

h. as though [5613 * hos] [Strong: probably adverb of comparative from 3739; which how, i.e. in that manner (very variously used, as follows):--about, after (that), (according) as (it had been, it were), as soon (as), even as (like), for, how (greatly), like (as, unto), since, so (that), that, to wit, unto, when(-soever), while, X with all speed.]

i. they were [5607 * on] [Strong: including the feminine ousa oo'-sah; and the neuter on on present participle of 1510; being:--be, come, have.] [Zodhiates: b eing, it refers to existence.]

1). There is at least a 13 year gap in the Biblical record between the time when Ishmael was born and God appeared to Abram in Genesis 17:1. The last recorded incident before Genesis 17 is Genesis 15 and the cutting of the Covenant. Between Genesis 15 and Genesis 17 is the horrible decision in Genesis 16 of Abram and Sarai to use Hagar as a substitute to bring fulfillment to God’s promise of a Covenant seed.

a). Genesis 16:16-17:1 And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael unto Abram.
17:1 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.

2). In light of the events of Genesis 16 we have to add another approximate year to the gap of recorded appearing’s of God to Abram, bringing the total years of gap to at least 14. After the incident when the strife erupted between Sarai and Hagar resulting in Hagar running away, the angel of the LORD appeared to Hagar rescued her and told her to return to her mistress. In all of this strife filled time period, it is not recorded that God appeared to Abram. In light of that it doesn’t surprise me that Abram fell on his face as Almighty God began to talk with him.

a). Genesis 17:1-3 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.
17:2 And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.
17:3 And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying,

3). As God was changing Abram’s name to Abraham, he was quickening what was dead in Abraham by calling those things which were not into being. The first thing quickened was Abraham’s faith.

a). Romans 10:17 Faith comes by hearing and hearing by the word of God.

b). As El Shaddai spoke the rhema word to Abraham, his faith came alive. He was calling Abram who was not a father of many nations, Abraham, who was a father of many nations.


Friday, October 12, 2007

Genesis 22:1

Genesis 22:1

And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am.

a. NLT: Some time later, God tested Abraham’s faith. “Abraham!” God called. “Yes,” he replied. “Here I am.”

b. NIV: Some time later God tested Abraham. He said to him, “Abraham!” “Here I am,” he replied.

c. YLT: And it cometh to pass after these things that God hath tried Abraham, and saith unto him, 'Abraham;' and he saith, 'Here am I.'

d. Amplified Bible: After these events, God tested and proved Abraham and said to him, Abraham! And he said, Here I am.

e. Septuagint: And it came to pass after these things that God tempted Abraam, and said to him, Abraam, Abraam; and he said, Lo! I [am here].

f. Stone Edition Chumash: And it happened after these things that God tested Abraham and said to him, “Abraham,” And he replied, “Here I am.”

1. “And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham…”

a. after [310 * ‘achar] [Strong: from 309; properly, the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjunction, after (in various senses):--after (that, -ward), again, at, away from, back (from, -side), behind, beside, by, follow (after, -ing), forasmuch, from, hereafter, hinder end, + out (over) live, + persecute, posterity, pursuing, remnant, seeing, since, thence(-forth), when, with.]

b. these things [1697 * dabar] [Strong: from 1696; a word; by implication, a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially, a cause:--act, advice, affair, answer, X any such (thing), because of, book, business, care, case, cause, certain rate, + chronicles, commandment, X commune(-ication), + concern(-ing), + confer, counsel, + dearth, decree, deed, X disease, due, duty, effect, + eloquent, errand, (evil favoured-)ness, + glory, + harm, hurt, + iniquity, + judgment, language, + lying, manner, matter, message, (no) thing, oracle, X ought, X parts, + pertaining, + please, portion, + power, promise, provision, purpose, question, rate, reason, report, request, X (as hast) said, sake, saying, sentence, + sign, + so, some (uncleanness), somewhat to say, + song, speech, X spoken, talk, task, + that, X there done, thing (concerning), thought, + thus, tidings, what(-soever), + wherewith, which, word, work.]

c. that God [430 * ‘elohyim] [Strong: plural of 433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative:--angels, X exceeding, God (gods)(-dess, -ly), X (very) great, judges, X mighty.]

d. did tempt [5254 * nacah] [Strong: a primitive root; to test; by implication, to attempt:--adventure, assay, prove, tempt, try.]

1). The same word is used in Psalm 26:2 and Exodus 16:4.

a). Psalm 26:2 Examine me, O LORD, and prove me; try my reins and my heart.

b). Exodus 16:4 Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.

2). The Bible says that the devil is the tempter, not God.

a). Matthew 4:3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.

b). James 1:13 Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man:

3. The conclusion is that God never tempts anyone. He proves them, because this is a proving ground for future responsibilities. We must be found faithful now in order to be counted worthy for future responsibilities.

e. Abraham [85 * ‘Abraham] [Strong: contracted from 1 and an unused root (probably meaning to be populous); father of a multitude; Abraham, the later name of Abram:--Abraham.]

2. “…and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am.”

a. and said unto him [559 * ‘amar] [Strong: a primitive root; to say (used with great latitude):--answer, appoint, avouch, bid, boast self, call, certify, challenge, charge, + (at the, give) command(-ment), commune, consider, declare, demand, X desire, determine, X expressly, X indeed, X intend, name, X plainly, promise, publish, report, require, say, speak (against, of), X still, X suppose, talk, tell, term, X that is, X think, use (speech), utter, X verily, X yet.]

b. Abraham [85 * ‘Abraham] [Strong: contracted from 1 and an unused root (probably meaning to be populous); father of a multitude; Abraham, the later name of Abram:--Abraham.]

c. and he said [559 * ‘amar] See “and said to him” above.