Wednesday, September 30, 2009

Ephesians 4:8

Ephesians 4:8

Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and he gave gifts unto men.

a. NLT: That is why the Scriptures say, “When he ascended to the heights, he led a crowd of captives and gave gifts to his people.

b. NIV: This is why it says: “When he ascended on high, he took many captives and gave gifts to his people.

c. YLT: Wherefore, he saith, 'Having gone up on high he led captive captivity, and gave gifts to men,' --

d. Amplified Bible Classic: Therefore it is said, When He ascended on high, He led captivity captive [He led a train of vanquished foes] and He bestowed gifts on men.

e. Worrell Translation: Wherefore, He saith, “Having ascended on high, He led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men.”

f. Wuest Translation: Wherefore He says, Having ascended on high, He led away captive those taken captive and gave gifts to men.

1. “Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive …”

a. Wherefore [Strong: 1352 dio dee-o' from 1223 and 3739; through which thing, i.e. consequently:--for which cause, therefore, wherefore.]

b. he saith [Strong: 3004 lego leg'-o a primary verb; properly, to "lay" forth, i.e. (figuratively) relate (in words (usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas 2036 and 5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while 4483 is properly to break silence merely, and 2980 means an extended or random harangue)); by implication, to mean:--ask, bid, boast, call, describe, give out, name, put forth, say(-ing, on), shew, speak, tell, utter.]

1). Here Paul is referring to something previously written in Scripture. This is another way of saying something similar to ‘As it is written’. This New Testament verse is taken from an Old Testament verse found in Psalms.

a). Psalms 68:18  Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among them.

2. “…When he ascended up on high…”

a. [When he] ascended 305 anabaino an-ab-ah'-ee-no from 303 and the base of 939; to go up (literally or figuratively):--arise, ascend (up), climb (go, grow, rise, spring) up, come (up).]

b. up [Strong: 1519 eis ice a primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases:--(abundant-)ly, against, among, as, at, (back-)ward, before, by, concerning, + continual, + far more exceeding, for (intent, purpose), fore, + forth, in (among, at, unto, -so much that, -to), to the intent that, + of one mind, + never, of, (up-)on, + perish, + set at one again, (so) that, therefore(-unto), throughout, til, to (be, the end, -ward), (here-)until(-to), ...ward, (where-)fore, with. Often used in composition with the same general import, but only with verbs (etc.) expressing motion (literally or figuratively).]

c. on high [Strong: 5311 hupsos hoop'-sos from a derivative of 5228; elevation, i.e. (abstractly) altitude, (specially), the sky, or (figuratively) dignity:--be exalted, height, (on) high.]

1). This is referring to Jesus ascending into heaven.  

a). Like 24:50, 51 And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
24:51  And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.

b). Mark 16:19 So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.

c). Acts 1:9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.

2). Chronologically this ascension was 40 days after His resurrection.

3. “…he led captivity captive …”

a. [he led] captivity [Strong: 162 aichmaloteuo aheekh-mal-o-tew'-o from 164; to capture (like 163):--lead captive.]

b. captive [Strong: 161 aichmalosia aheekh-mal-o-see'-ah from 164; captivity:--captivity.]

1). The “captivity” that He led “captive” were the persons that had died under the Old Covenant who were prisoners in Abraham’s bosom. Jesus spoke of this in Luke 16. In this passage the earthly vail is pulled away and we see not only into the spirit world but also into the lower parts of the earth. We see that before the work of Christ on the cross, in hell and the resurrection, the righteous dead did not go to heaven, but went to a place inside the earth called Abraham’s bosom. At that time hell was divided into two compartments, a place for the righteous dead [Abraham’s bosom], and a place for the unrighteous dead [hell].

a). 1). Luke 16:19-31 There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:
16:20 And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,
16:21 And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.
16:22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried;
16:23 And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
16:24 And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.
16:25 But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented.
16:26 And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.
16:27 Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house:
16:28 For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment.
16:29 Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.
16:30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent.
16:31 And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.

2). A possible double meaning could be implied in Acts chapter one.

a). Acts 1:9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.

b). The “cloud” being those who were led out of Abraham’s bosom, a cloud of witnesses.

c). Hebrews 12:1 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin that doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us.

4. “…and he gave gifts unto men.”

a. and [Strong: 2532 kai kahee apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words:--and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.]

b. [he] gave [Strong: 1325 didomi did'-o-mee a prolonged form of a primary verb (which is used as an alternative in most of the tenses); to give (used in a very wide application, properly, or by implication, literally or figuratively; greatly modified by the connection):--adventure, bestow, bring forth, commit, deliver (up), give, grant, hinder, make, minister, number, offer, have power, put, receive, set, shew, smite (+ with the hand), strike (+ with the palm of the hand), suffer, take, utter, yield.]

c. gifts [Strong: 1390 doma dom'-ah from the base of 1325; a present:--gift.]

d. [to] men [Strong: 444 anthropos anth'-ro-pos from 435 and ops (the countenance; from 3700); man-faced, i.e. a human being:--certain, man.]

1). The gifts are the five fold ministry listed later in the passage and their purpose in the body of Christ.

a). Ephesians 4:11-13 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;
4:12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:
4:13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ:

Tuesday, September 29, 2009

1 Timothy 1:18

1 Timothy 1:18

This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightiest war a good warfare;

a. NLT: Timothy, my son, here are my instructions for you, based on the prophetic words spoken about you earlier. May they help you fight well in the Lord’s battles.

b. NIV: Timothy, my son, I am giving you this command in keeping with the prophecies once made about you, so that by recalling them you may fight the battle well,
c. YLT: This charge I commit to thee, child Timotheus, according to the prophesies that went before upon thee, that thou mayest war in them the good warfare,    

d. Amplified Bible Classic: This charge and admonition I commit in trust to you, Timothy, my son, in accordance with prophetic intimations which I formerly received concerning you, so that inspired and aided by them you may wage the good warfare,

e. Worrell Translation: This charge I commit to you, child Timothy, according to the prophecies going before in respect to you, that you may war with these the noble warfare.

f. Wuest Translation: This charge I am entrusting to you, son Timothy, in accordance with the prophetic intimations which were made long ago concerning you, to the effect that in their sphere you are to wage a good warfare.

1. “This charge I commit unto thee…”

a. This [Strong: 5026 taute tow'-tay, and tauten tow'-tane, and tautes tow'-tace dative case, accusative case and genitive case respectively of the feminine singular of 3778; (towards or of) this:--her, + hereof, it, that, + thereby, the (same), this (same).]

b. charge [Strong: 3852 paraggelia par-ang-gel-ee'-ah from 3853; a mandate:--charge, command.] [Vine’s: "a proclamation, a command or commandment," is strictly used of commands received from a superior and transmitted to others.]

1). The word “charge” is used many times in the Old Testament in connection with the commandments of God. It is never used lightly. One can do a word search of it and be struck by the heaviness associated with it.

a). 1 Kings 2:1-3 Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he charged Solomon his son, saying,
2:2 I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, and shew thy self a man;
2:3 And keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whitherso ever thou turnest thyself.

b). Numbers 27:18-23 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, an man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him;
27:19 And set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight.
27:20 And thou shalt put some of thine honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient.
27:21 And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of the Urim before the LORD: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.
27:22 And Moses did as the LORD commanded him: and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation:
27:23 And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses.

c. I commit [Strong: 3908 paratithemi par-at-ith'-ay-mee from 3844 and 5087; to place alongside, i.e. present (food, truth); by implication, to deposit (as a trust or for protection):--allege, commend, commit (the keeping of), put forth, set before.]

d. unto thee [Strong: 4671 soi soy dative case of 4771; to thee:--thee, thine own, thou, thy.]

2. “…son Timothy…”

a. son [Strong: 5043 teknon tek'-non from the base of 5098; a child (as produced):--child, daughter, son.] [Vine’s: "a child" (akin to tikto, "to beget, bear"), is used in both the natural and the figurative senses. In contrast to huios, "son" (see below), it gives prominence to the fact of birth, whereas huios stresses the dignity and character of the relationship. Figuratively, teknon is used of "children" of  God, light, the devil, obedience, wrath, cursing.] [Thayer’s: pupils or disciples are called children of their teachers, because the latter by their instruction nourish the minds of their pupils and mould their characters.]

1). Examples of Thayer’s definition are found in the Old Covenant and in the New Covenant.

a). 2 Kings 2:1-3 And it came to pass, when the LORD would take up Elijah into heaven by a whirlwind, that Elijah went with Elisha from Gilgal.
And Elijah said unto Elisha, Tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me to Bethel. And Elisha said unto him, As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee. So they went down to Bethel.
And the sons of the prophets that were at Bethel came forth to Elisha, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to day? And he said, Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.

b). Acts 13:6 And when they had gone through the isle unto Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Barjesus: [bar- son of, follower of].

2). Timothy was Paul’s spiritual son.

a). Philippians 2:19-22 But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly unto you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I know your state.
2:20 For I have no man likeminded, who will naturally care for your state.
2:21 For all seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ's.
2:22 But ye know the proof of him, that, as a son with the father, he hath served with me in the gospel.

b. Timothy [Strong: 5095 Timotheos tee-moth'-eh-os from 5092 and 2316; dear to God; Timotheus, a Christian:--Timotheus, Timothy.]

1). It is probable that the Apostle Paul won Timothy to the Lord during his first missionary trip to Lystra which is recorded in Acts 14:8-20. During the Apostles Paul and Barnabas’s time there, a man cripple from his mother’s womb was healed, and Paul being stoned, severely wounded and thought to be dead was raised up: Acts 14:8-20. These events were all witnessed by the newly won disciples to the Lord. There were enough disciples in the newly established church that elders were ordained through prayer and fasting. Among those disciples were Timothy’s grandmother Lois, and his mother Eunice and of course Timothy himself. It was perhaps on Paul’s second missionary trip through Lystra that Paul recognized the call of God on Timothy’s life and invited him to join the team.

a). Acts 16:1-3 Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and, behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek:
16:2 Which was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium.
16:3 Him would Paul have to go forth with him; and took and circumcised him because of the Jews which were in those quarters: for they knew all that his father was a Greek. 

3. "…according to the prophecies which went before on thee"

a. according to [Strong: 2596 kata kat-ah' a primary particle; (prepositionally) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined):--about, according as (to), after, against, (when they were) X alone, among, and, X apart, (even, like) as (concerning, pertaining to touching), X aside, at, before, beyond, by, to the charge of, (charita-)bly, concerning, + covered, (dai-)ly, down, every, (+ far more) exceeding, X more excellent, for, from ... to, godly, in(-asmuch, divers, every, -to, respect of), ... by, after the manner of, + by any means, beyond (out of) measure, X mightily, more, X natural, of (up-)on (X part), out (of every), over against, (+ your) X own, + particularly, so, through(-oughout, -oughout every), thus, (un-)to(-gether, -ward), X uttermost, where(-by), with. In composition it retains many of these applications, and frequently denotes opposition, distribution, or intensity.]

b. the [Strong: 3588 ho ho, including the feminine he hay, and the neuter to to in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom):--the, this, that, one, he, she, it, etc.]

c. prophecies [Strong: 4394 propheteia prof-ay-ti'-ah from 4396 ("prophecy"); prediction (scriptural or other):--prophecy, prophesying.]

d. which went before [Strong: 4254 proago pro-ag'-o from 4253 and 71; to lead forward (magisterially); intransitively, to precede (in place or time (participle, previous)):--bring (forth, out), go before.]

e. on [Strong: 1909 epi ep-ee' a primary preposition; properly, meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution (with the genitive case), i.e. over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.:--about (the times), above, after, against, among, as long as (touching), at, beside, X have charge of, (be-, (where-))fore, in (a place, as much as, the time of, -to), (because) of, (up-)on (behalf of), over, (by, for) the space of, through(-out), (un-)to(-ward), with. In compounds it retains essentially the same import, at, upon, etc. (literally or figuratively).]

f. thee [Strong: 4571 se seh accusative case singular of 4771; thee:--thee, thou, X thy house.]

1). There were prophetic words spoken over Timothy previously. Who spoke them and what they said is unknown. Prophetic words are to speak into men's lives, either edification, exhortation , or comfort.

a). 1 Corinthians 14:3 But he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort.

4. "…that thou by them mightiest war a good warfare."

a. that [Strong: 2443 hina hin'-ah probably from the same as the former part of 1438 (through the demonstrative idea; compare 3588); in order that (denoting the purpose or the result):--albeit, because, to the intent (that), lest, so as, (so) that, (for) to.]

b. thou…mightiest war [Strong: 4754 strateuomai strat-yoo'-om-ahee middle voice from the base of 4756; to serve in a military campaign; figuratively, to execute the apostolate (with its arduous duties and functions), to contend with carnal inclinations:--soldier, (go to) war(-fare).]

c. by [Strong: 1722 en en a primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), i.e. a relation of rest (intermediate between 1519 and 1537); "in," at, (up-)on, by, etc.:--about, after, against, + almost, X altogether, among, X as, at, before, between, (here-)by (+ all means), for (... sake of), + give self wholly to, (here-)in(-to, -wardly), X mightily, (because) of, (up-)on, (open-)ly, X outwardly, one, X quickly, X shortly, (speedi-)ly, X that, X there(-in, -on), through(-out), (un-)to(-ward), under, when, where(-with), while, with(-in). Often used in compounds, with substantially the same import; rarely with verbs of motion, and then not to indicate direction, except (elliptically) by a separate (and different) preposition.]

d. them [Strong: 846 autos ow-tos' from the particle au (perhaps akin to the base of 109 through the idea of a baffling wind) (backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the comparative 1438) of the third person , and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons:--her, it(-self), one, the other, (mine) own, said, (self-), the) same, ((him-, my-, thy- )self, (your-)selves, she, that, their(-s), them(-selves), there(-at, - by, -in, -into, -of, -on, -with), they, (these) things, this (man), those, together, very, which.]

e. a good [Strong: 2570 kalos kal-os' of uncertain affinity; properly, beautiful, but chiefly (figuratively) good (literally or morally), i.e. valuable or virtuous (for appearance or use, and thus distinguished from 18, which is properly intrinsic):--X better, fair, good(-ly), honest, meet, well, worthy.]

f. warfare [Strong: 4752 strateia strat-i'-ah from 4754; military service, i.e. (figuratively) the apostolic career (as one of hardship and danger):--warfare.]

1). Paul is telling Timothy that he can use the prophetic words spoken over him to "war a good warfare". The warfare he is referring to is bringing the whole person, spirit soul and body in line with the word of God.

a). 2 Corinthians 10:3-6 For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh:
10:4 (For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds;)
10:5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exhalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ;
10:6 And having in a readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience is fulfilled.

b). The Scripture is clearly referring to our own responsibility in our personal relationship with God. The “strongholds” he mentions are areas in our life, habits, thought patterns that are hindering our relationship with Christ. We as born again believers, as we desire to draw near to Christ, desiring to be more like him, are to be in obedience to what God says in His word, cast down all of the thoughts that are against the word and bring all of our thoughts into obedience to Christ. This obviously requires time because it is a growing process. It will require learning the word and knowing how God’s word differs with the way we think and then changing our thinking. Later in this same letter, in 1 Timothy 6:12, Paul exhorted Timothy to "fight the good fight of faith."