And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.
a. ASV: And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.
b. YLT: 'And I harden the heart of Pharaoh, and have multiplied My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt,
c. Amplified Bible Classic: And I will make Pharaoh’s heart stubborn and hard, and multiply My signs, My wonders, and miracles in the land of Egypt.
d. Septuagint: And I will harden the heart of Pharao, and I will multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt.
e. Stone Edition Torah/Prophets/Writings: But I shall harden Pharaoh’s heart, and I shall multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.
1. “And I will harden Pharaoh's heart…”
a. [And] I [Strong: 589 'aniy an-ee' contracted from 595; I:--I, (as for) me, mine, myself, we, X which, X who.]
b. [will] harden [Strong: 7185 qâshâh, kaw-shaw'; a primitive root; properly, to be dense, i.e. tough or severe (in various applications):—be cruel, be fiercer, make grievous, be ((ask a), be in, have, seem, would) hard(-en, (labour), -ly, thing), be sore, (be, make) stiff(-en, (-necked)).]
c. Pharaoh’s [Strong: 6547 Parʻôh, par-o'; of Egyptian derivation; Paroh, a general title of Egyptian kings:—Pharaoh.]
d. heart [Strong: 3820 lêb, labe; a form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything:—care for, comfortably, consent, × considered, courag(-eous), friend(-ly), ((broken-), (hard-), (merry-), (stiff-), (stout-), double) heart(-ed), × heed, × I, kindly, midst, mind(-ed), ×regard(-ed), × themselves, × unawares, understanding, × well, willingly, wisdom.]
1). Looking at this verse alone it appears that Pharaoh had no free will and that God hardened his heart and Pharaoh had no choice. But that is not the case, within this drama between God and Pharaoh there are a number of Scriptures that just say, that Pharaoh’s heart was hardened and others that say Pharaoh hardened his own heart.
a). Exodus 7:14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.
b). Exodus 7:22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.
c). Exodus 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also.
d). Exodus 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
2). I think it is clear that Pharaoh of his own free will, caught up in idolatry and lust, hardened his own heart and would not let Israel go. The word of God warns us not to harden our hearts through willful disobedience.
a). Hebrews 3:7-13 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice,
3:8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness:
3:9 When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years.
3:10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways.
3:11 So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.)
3:12 Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God.
3:13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.
2. “...and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.”
a. [and] multiply [Strong: 7235 râbâh, raw-baw'; a primitive root; to increase (in whatever respect):—(bring in) abundance (× -antly), archer (by mistake for H7232), be in authority, bring up, ×continue, enlarge, excel, exceeding(-ly), be full of, (be, make) great(-er, -ly, × -ness), grow up, heap, increase, be long, (be, give, have, make, use) many (a time), (any, be, give, give the, have) more (in number), (ask, be, be so, gather, over, take, yield) much (greater, more), (make to) multiply, nourish, plenty(-eous), × process (of time), sore, store, thoroughly, very.]
b. [Strong: 853 'eth ayth apparent contracted from 226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly, self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely):--(as such unrepresented in English).]
c. [my] signs [Strong: 226 ʼôwth, oth; probably from H225 (in the sense of appearing); a signal (literally or figuratively), as a flag, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence, etc.:—mark, miracle, (en-) sign, token.]
d. and [Strong: 853 'eth ayth apparent contracted from 226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly, self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely):--(as such unrepresented in English).]
e. [my] wonders [Strong: 4159 môwphêth, mo-faith'; or מֹפֵת môphêth; from H3302 in the sense of conspicuousness; a miracle; by implication, a token or omen:—miracle, sign, wonder(-ed at).]
f. [in the] land [Strong: 776 ʼerets, eh'-rets; from an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land):—× common, country, earth, field, ground, land, × natins, way, + wilderness, world.]
g. [of] Egypt [Strong: 4714 Mitsrayim, mits-rah'-yim; dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, i.e. Upper and Lower Egypt:—Egypt, Egyptians, Mizraim.]