Thursday, March 14, 2019

Deuteronomy 27:4

Deuteronomy 27:4

Therefore it shall be when ye be gone over Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaister them with plaister.

a. ASV: And it shall be, when ye are passed over the Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaster them with plaster.

b. YLT: 'And it hath been, in your passing over the Jordan, ye raise up these stones which I am commanding you to-day, in mount Ebal, and thou hast plaistered them with plaister,

c. Amplified Bible Classic: And when you have gone over the Jordan, you shall set up these stones, as I command you this day, on Mount Ebal, and coat them with plaster.

d. Septuagint: And it shall be as soon as ye are gone over Jordan, ye shall set up these stones, which I command thee this day, on mount Gaebal, and thou shalt plaster them with plaster.

e. Stone Edition Torah/Prophets/Writings: It shall be when you cross the Jordan, you shall erect these stones, of which I command you today, on Mount Ebal, and you shall coat them with plaister.

1. “Therefore it shall be when ye be gone over Jordan…”

a. [Therefore] it shall be [Strong: 1961 hayah haw-yaw a primitive root (Compare 1933); to exist, i.e. be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary):--beacon, X altogether, be(-come), accomplished, committed, like), break, cause, come (to pass), do, faint, fall, + follow, happen, X have, last, pertain, quit (one-)self, require, X use.]

b. [when ye be] gone over [Strong: 5674 ʻâbar, aw-bar'; a primitive root; to cross over; used very widely of any transition (literal or figurative; transitive, intransitive, intensive, causative); specifically, to cover (in copulation):—alienate, alter, × at all, beyond, bring (over, through), carry over, (over-) come (on, over), conduct (over), convey over, current, deliver, do away, enter, escape, fail, gender, get over, (make) go (away, beyond, by, forth, his way, in, on, over, through), have away (more), lay, meddle, overrun, make partition, (cause to, give, make to, over) pass(-age, along, away, beyond, by, -enger, on, out, over, through), (cause to, make) proclaim(-amation), perish, provoke to anger, put away, rage, raiser of taxes, remove, send over, set apart, shave, cause to (make) sound, ×speedily, × sweet smelling, take (away), (make to) transgress(-or), translate, turn away, (way-) faring man, be wrath.]

c. Jordan [Strong: 3383 Yardên, yar-dane'; from H3381; a descender; Jarden, the principal river of Palestine:—Jordan.]

2.  “...that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal…”

a. [that] ye shall set up [Strong: 6965 qûwm, koom; a primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literal, figurative, intensive and causative):—abide, accomplish, × be clearer, confirm, continue, decree, × be dim, endure, × enemy, enjoin, get up, make good, help, hold, (help to) lift up (again), make, × but newly, ordain, perform, pitch, raise (up), rear (up), remain, (a-) rise (up) (again, against), rouse up, set (up), (e-) stablish, (make to) stand (up), stir up, strengthen, succeed, (as-, make) sure(-ly), (be) up(-hold, -rising).]

b. these [Strong: 428 'el-leh ale'-leh prolonged from 411; these or those:--an- (the) other; one sort, so, some, such, them, these (same), they, this, those, thus, which, who(-m).]

c. stones [Strong: 68 ʼeben, eh'-ben; from the root of H1129 through the meaning to build; a stone:— carbuncle, mason, plummet, (chalk-, hail-, head-, sling-) stone(-ny), (divers) weight(-s).]

d. which [Strong: 834 'aher ash-er' a primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as an adverb and a conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.:--X after, X alike, as (soon as), because, X every, for, + forasmuch, + from whence, + how(-soever), X if, (so) that ((thing) which, wherein), X though, + until, + whatsoever, when, where (+ -as, -in, -of, -on, -soever, -with), which, whilst, + whither(- soever), who(-m, -soever, -se). As it is indeclinable, it is often accompanied by the personal pronoun expletively, used to show the connection.]

e. I [Strong: 595  'anokiy aw-no-kee' sometimes {aw-no'-kee}; a primitive pro.; I:--I, me, X which.]

f. command [Strong: 6680 tsâvâh, tsaw-vaw'; a primitive root; (intensively) to constitute, enjoin:—appoint, (for-) bid, (give a) charge, (give a, give in, send with) command(-er, -ment), send a messenger, put, (set) in order.]

g. you [Strong: 853 'eth ayth apparent contracted from 226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly, self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely):--(as such unrepresented in English).]

h. [this] day [Strong: 3117 yôwm, yome; from an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literal (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figurative (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverb):—age, always, chronicals, continually(-ance), daily, ((birth-), each, to) day, (now a, two) days (agone), elder, × end, evening, (for) ever(-lasting, -more), × full, life, as (so) long as (... live), (even) now, old, outlived, perpetually, presently, remaineth, ×required, season, × since, space, then, (process of) time, as at other times, in trouble, weather, (as) when, (a, the, within a) while (that), × whole ( age), (full) year(-ly), younger.]
i. [in] mount [Strong: 2022 har, har; a shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively):—hill (country), mount(-ain), × promotion.]

j. Ebal [Strong: 5858 ʻÊybâl, ay-bawl'; perhaps from an unused root probably meaning to be bald; bare; Ebal, a mountain of Palestine:—Ebal.]

3. “...and thou shalt plaister them with plaister.”

a. [and thou shalt] plaister [Strong: 7875 sîyd, seed; from H7874; lime (as boiling when slacked):—lime, plaister.]

b. them [Strong: 853 'eth ayth apparent contracted from 226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly, self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely):--(as such unrepresented in English).]

c. [with] plaister [Strong: 7874 sîyd, seed; a primitive root probably meaning to boil up (compare H7736); used only as denominative from H7875; to plaster:—plaister.]

1). This command to build an altar on Mount Ebal was obeyed by Joshua and the elders of Israel (Joshua 8:30-35).

2). On 10/30/83 the Cincinnati Enquirer printed an Associated Press piece by Allyn Fisher titled, “Newly Discovered Stone Altar Might Be Joshua’s, Scientist Says”  TEL AVIV, Israel: A stone altar 30 centuries old has been unearthed on a West Bank mountain where the Bible says the prophet Joshua built his altar after leading the children of Israel into the promised land. Israeli archaeologist Adam Zartal told the Associated Press on Friday that sheep bones, ashes and a dark substance that may have been blood from ritual sacrifices were found on the 27 foot by 21 foot stone structure near the peak of the 3,100 foot Mount Ebal, a little more than a mile north of Nablus. “We have never before found a structure of an altar from the period of the Old Testament,” said Zartal, whose discovery was reported in the daily Haaretz newspaper and confirmed by Haifa University. What excites archaeologists about the find made October 21 is the possibility that it was constructed by Joshua, who the Bible says blew down the walls of Jericho with a trumpet. Joshua succeeded Moses as leader of the Israelites. Zartal said the location fits the description of Old Testament reference to an altar Joshua built on Mount Ebal. And in the book of Deuteronomy, God instructs his people build an altar of stones with chalk markings after the Israelites crossed into the holy land across the Jordan River. If the altar is proven to be that of Joshua it would lend support to those who argue the literal nature of the Scriptures rather than their allegorical value. “Mount Ebal is known by all accounts of the settlement of the people of Israel in the ancient land and here we have found archaeological remains that are testimony to the holiness of the site.” Said Professor Benjamin Mazar, 77, of Hebrew University. Mazar, who helped Zartal in research on the project financed by the government and Haifa University, is one of Israel’s most respected archaeologists. He said further research is needed to establish the link with Joshua. “There is no doubt that this is a very significant holy site but it still needs further archaeological and biblical research, Mazar told the AP in a telephone interview. Both archaeologists said the site dated from the 12 century B.C., based on ceramic pottery found at the scene and subjected to a carbon dating test.

3). Joshua´s Altar Leads to Deepening National Consciousness

 Israel National News 12/28/2006
by Hillel Fendel
Prof. Adam Zertal, an archaeologist from Tel Aviv University, was the man who discovered and excavated the area and determined that it is the remnants of Joshua's Altar. He appeared recently on Israel National Radio, speaking with hosts Yishai and Malkah Fleisher. "How do you know that this was in fact Joshua's altar?" Yishai asked. "Perhaps it was built by other peoples over the years, for instance." Prof. Zertal, author of " A Nation is Born: The Mt. Eval Altar and the Beginnings of the Nation of Israel," appeared not to know where to start, given the amount of evidence he can provide. He began with the discovery itself: "We discovered this place, all covered with stones, in April 1980. At that time I never dreamt that we were dealing with the altar, because I was taught in Tel Aviv University - the center of anti-Biblical tendencies, where I learned that Biblical theories are untrue, and that Biblical accounts were written later, and the like. I didn't even know of the story of the Joshua's altar. But we surveyed every meter of the site, and in the course of nine years of excavation, we discovered a very old structure with no parallels to anything we had seen before. It was 9 by 7 meters, and 4 meters high, with two stone ramps, and a kind of veranda, known as the sovev, around." The Torah itself, in Deut. 27, 4-8, recounts the command to build the altar on Mt. Ebal (Eval) when the Jewish People would cross the Jordan River into the Holy Land. The command stipulates that the stones should not be hewn by iron, and that sacrifices should be brought there. Joshua 8, 30 states that Joshua fulfilled the command and, in fact, built the altar on Mt. Ebal. This occurred, according to traditional chronology, in the year 2488 to the creation of the world, or 3,252 years before Zertal began his excavation of the site.
A very critical piece of evidence cited by Zertal in support of his identification of the structure as Joshua's Altar appears to be the animal bones found there:
"There were more than 1,000 burnt animal bones - exactly of the type that were used for sacrifices. It was clear that this was not the remnants of some village, but rather a cultic site. But the critical turning point [in our excavation] came when a religious member of our team showed us the Mishna describing the altar of the 2nd Temple period - 1,200 years later than our discovery. The description was very similar to what we had found - meaning that the Mishna was clearly and definitely a continuation and prototype of the one on Mt. Ebal. They both have ramps, just as the Torah stipulates, for the High Priest to ascend to the altar without going up steps, and the sizes matched, and more... The architecture itself was the evidence." "We found 1,000 bones in the site, and another 2,000 around it - representing something like 700 animals," Prof. Zertal said. "We sent them for analysis to the zoology department of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and all the males were young males around one year old - as the Torah commands - and were of the four animals that were brought as sacrifices: goats, sheep, cattle, and fallow deer. In addition, most of the bones had been burnt in open-flame fires of low temperature."
Explaining why the area around the altar is so barren, Prof. Zertal said, "Both in Deut. 27 and in Joshua 8, the implication is that the altar will serve for a one-time ceremony, as opposed to becoming a permanent holy area such as the Temple in Jerusalem... Afterwards, it was covered up with stones in order that it not be desecrated, and the people moved southward, to Shilo, and then further south, to Jerusalem, where the final eternal Temple was built." The Talmud (Sotah 45b), in fact, agrees that the altar was quite temporary, and that Joshua took it apart and moved the stones to the Gilgal area. The Talmud states that this happened on the same day the altar was built, and the Medrash adds that another altar was built on Mt. Eval some 40 years later. Asked if he had found the 12 stones on which the Book of Deuteronomy was written there (Joshua 8, 32), Prof. Zertal said that this would be a hard task. He explained that the exact location of the stones is not clear from the Biblical account, and that in any event, "The words of Torah were written on plaster that covered the stones, because iron tools were not allowed to be used on the stones... But we did find 60 pieces of plaster near the altar; this is unusual, as usually they did not plaster the structures. The pieces are very fragile, but we are trying to see if we can find something."

4). It is truly edifying to find evidence of  Scriptural proof in this day and age, the Word of God is true.

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